WRITTEN FROM EPHESUS, A. D. 56.
II. Now I, when I came to you, came not with excellency of speech, and of wisdom, declaring to you the testimony of God. For I determined to make known nothing among you, but Jesus Christ, and him crucified. And I, in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling, was with you. And my discourse, and my proclamation, were not with persuasive words of human wisdom, but with the demonstration of the Spirit, and of power. That your faith might not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God. However, we speak wisdom among the perfect: but not the wisdom of this world; neither of the rulers of this world who are to be made nought. For we speak the wisdom of God, which ws hidden in a secret,*[App. No. LXVIII.] but which God predetermined before the ages, should be spoken to our glory. Which wisdomnone of the rulers of this world knew: for if they had known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. For, as it is written, "Those things eye hath not seen, and ear hath not heard, and into the heart of man, have not entered, which God hath prepared for them who love him." But God hath revealed them to us by his Spirit; for the Spirit searcheth all things, even the depths of God. For who of men knoweth the depths of a man, except the spirit of man which is in him; so also the depths of God, no one knoweth, except the Spirit of God. Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which cometh from God, that we might know the things which are gifted to us by God. Which things also we speak, not in words taught by human wisdom, but in words taught by the Holy Spirit, explaining spiritual things in spiritual words.*[App. No. LXIX.] Now, an animal man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness to him, neither can he know them, because they are spiritually examined. But the spiritual man examineth indeed, all things, yet he is examined of no one. For what man hath known the mind of the Lord, who will instruct him? But we have the mind of Christ.
III. Now I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual, but as to fleshly men, even as to babes in Christ. Milk I gave you, and not meat; for ye were not then able to recevie it; nay, neither yet now are ye able, because ye are still fleshly. For, whereas among you, envying, and strife, and divisions subsist, are ye not fleshly, and walk after the manner of men? Besides, while one saith, I, indeed, am of Paul, and another, I of Apollos, are ye not fleshly? For who is Paul, and who is Apollos, but ministers by whom ye have believed, even as the Lord hath given to each? I have planted, Apollos hath watered, but God hath made to grow. So that neither the planter is any thing, nor the waterer, but God who maketh to grow. However, the planter and the waerere are one, and each shal receive his proper reward accoding to his proper labour. Wherefore, we are joint labourers of God. Ye are God's field; ye are God's building. According to the favour of God which is given to me, as a skilful architect I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let every one take heed how he buildeth thereupon. For other foundation no one can lay except what is laid, which is Jesus the Christ. Now, if any one build on this foundation, gold, silver, valuable stones, wood, hay, stubble; every one's rels shall be made manifest: for the day will make it plain, because it is revealed by fire; and so the fire will try every one's rels, of what sort it is. If the rels of any one remaineth, which he hath built upon the foundation, he shall receive a reward. If the rels of any one shall be burnt, he will suffer loss: himself, however, shall be saved, yet so as through a fire. Know ye not, thatye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth among you? If any one destroy the temple of God, him will God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are.
18. Let no one deceive himself. If any one among you thinketh to be wise in this age, let him become a fool, that he may be wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God; for it is written, "He catcheth the wise in their own craftiness." And again, "The Lord knoweth the reasonings of the wise, that they are vain." Wherefore let no man boast in men; for all things are yours; whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come; all are yours. And ye are Christ's, and Christ is God's.
IV. So then let a man consider us as servants only of Christ and stewards of the secrets of God. Now, it is required in stewards, that every one be found faithful. Therefore, to me it is a very small mater that I be condemned by you, or by human judgment, because I do not condemn myself. For I am conscious to myself of no fault. However, I am not by this justified in your eyes; but he who condemneth me is the Lord. Wherefore, do not before the time pass any judgment, until the LOrd come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and lay open the counsels of the hearts; and then praise shall be to every one from God. Now, these things, brethren, I have figuratively applied to myself, and Apollos, for your sakes, that by us ye may learn, not to esteem teachers above what hath been written, that no one of you may, on account of one [teacher,] be puffed up against another. Besides, who maketh thee to differ? for what hast thou which thou didst not receive? and now if thou didst receive it, why dost thou boast as not receiving it?
8. Now ye are filled! now ye are become rich! ye have reigned without us! and I wish, indeed, ye had reigned properly, that we also might reign with you. For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as persons appoited to death; that we are made a spectacle to the world, even to messengers, and to men. We are fools on account of Christ; but ye are wise in Christ: we are weak, but ye are strong: ye are honoured, but we are despised. To the present hour we both hunger, thirst, and are naked, and are buffetted, and have no certain dwelling place, and labour relsing with our own hands: when reviled, we bless; when persecuted, we bear; when defamed, we beseech: we are become as the purgations of the world, the filth of all things until now. I write not these things to shame you, but, as my beloved children, I instruct you. For, though ye have ten thousand teachers in Christ, yet ye have not many fathers: for to Christ Jesus, through the gospel, I have begotten you. Wherefore, I beseech you, be imitators of me. For this purpose I have sent unto you Timothy, who is my beloved son, and faithful in the Lord; he will put you in mind of my ways, which are in Christ, even as I teach every where in every congregation. Now some are puffed up, as if I were not coming to you. But I will come to you soon, if the Lord will, and shall kow, not the speech of them who are puffed up, but the power. For not by speech is the kingdom of God [established,] but by power.
What do ye incline? Shall I come to you with a rod? or in love, and in the spirit of righteousness? It is generally reported, that there is whoredom among you; and such whoredom as not even among the heathens is named, that one hath his father's wife. And ye are puffed up, and have not rather bewailed, so as he who hath done this rels, might be taken away from among you. Wherefore, I verily as absent in the body, yet present in spirit, have already, as present, judged him who hath so wrought out this rels. And my sentence is this: ye being gathered together in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and of my spirit, shall with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, deliver such a one to satan, for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. Your boasting is not good. Know ye not that a little leven leaveneth the whole lump? Cleanse out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump when ye are without leaven; for even our passover, Christ, is sacrificed for us. Therefore, let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened [qualities] of sincerity and truth. I have written to you in this epistle, not to associate with fornicators. However, not universally with the fornicators ofthis world, and with the covetous, and with extortioners, and with idolaters, since then, indeed, ye must go out of the world.
11. But now, I write to you, not to associate with him, if any one called a brother be a fornicator, or a covetous person, or an idolater, or a reviler, or a drunkard, or an extortioner, with such a person not even to eat. For what have I to do to judge them also who are without? Do not ye judge them who are within? But them who are without, God judgeth. Therefore, put away from among yourselves the wicked person.
VI. Dare any of you, having a matter against another, be judged by the unrighteous, and not by the saints? Do ye not know that the saints judge the world? and if the world is judged by you, are ye unworthy of the least seats of judicature. Do ye not know that we judge messengers? Why not then things pertaining to this life? Well then, when ye have secular seats of judicature, make to sit on them those who are least esteemed in the church. For shame to you I say; so then, there is not among you a wise man, not even one, who shall be able to decide between his brethren? But brother with brother is judged, and that by infidels. Now, therefore, indeed there is plainly a fault in you, that ye have law-suits with one another. Why do ye not rather bear injury? Why do ye not rather bear the being defrauded? But ye injure and defraud, and that too your brethren. Do ye not know, that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived, neitehr fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor catamites,*[Catamites, those who submitted to be abused by men contrary to nature. Sodomites, those who abused them.] nor sodomites, nor theives, nor covetous persons, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God. And such were some of you; but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified, by the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God. All meats are lawful for me to eat, but all are not proper: all meats are lawful for me to eat; but I will not be enslaved by any meat. Meats for the belly, and the belly for meats: however, God will destroy both it and them. Now the body was not made for whoredom, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body: and God hath both raised the Lord,and will raise up us by his own power. Do ye not know that your bodies are the members of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and make them the members of an harlot? By no means. What, do ye not know that he who is strongly attached to an harlot, is one body? for he saith, "The two shall be one flesh." But he who is strongly attached to the Lord, is one spirit. Flee whoredom. Every sin which a man committeth, is withou;the body; but he who committeth whoredom, sinneth against his own body. What, do ye not know that your body is the temple ofthe Holy Spirit,who is in you, whom ye have from God? Besides, ye are not your own; for ye are bought with a price: glorify God, therefore, with your body and with your spirit, which are God's.
VII. Now, concerning the things of which ye wrote to me, it is good for a man not to marry a woman. Nevertheless, on account of whoredomes, let every man have a wife of his own, and let every woman have her own husband. Let the husband render to the wife the due benevolence; and in like manner also, the wife to the husband. The wife hath not the command of her own body, but the husband; and in like manner also, the husband hath not the command of his own body, but the wife. Deprive not one another, unless perhaps by consent for a time, that ye may have leisure for fasting and prayer; and again, come ye together to the same place, that Satan may not tempt you through your incontinency. But this which follows I speak as an advice, and not as an injunction, that I wish all men to be even as I myself am. However, each hath his proper gift from God, one, indeed, after this manner, and another after that. I say, then, to the unmarried men, and to the widows, it is good for them, if they can remain even as I do. YEt, if they cannot live continently, let them marry; for it is better to marry than to burn. Now those who have married I charge, yet not I, but the Lord; let not a wife depart from her husband: But if she even depart, let her remain unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband; and a husband must not put away his wife. But the rest I command, (not the Lord,) if any brother have an infidel wife, who herself is well pleased to dwell with him, let him not put her away. And a woman who hath an infidel husband, who himself is well pleased to dwell with her, let her not put him away. For the infidel husband is sanctified to the wife,and the infidel wife is santified to the husband; otherwise, certainly, your children were unclean, whereas, indeed they are holy. But if the infidel depart, let him depart: the brother or the sister is not in bondage with such; but God hath called us to peace. For how knoweth thou, O wife,whether thou shalt save thyhusband? And how knowest thou, O husband, whether thou shalt save thy wife? But as God hath distributed to every one, and as the Lord hath called every one, so let him walk: and so in all the congregations, I ordain. Hath any uncircumcised one been called? let him not be uncircumcised. hath any one been called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the comandments of God. Let every one remain in the same calling in which he was called. Wast thou called being a bondman? Be not thou careful to be made free. Yet, if thou canst even be made free, rather use it. For a bondman who is called by the Lord, is the Lord's freed man. In like manner also, a freeman who is called, is Christ's bondman. Ye were bought with a price: become not the slaves of men. Brethren, in what state each one was called, in that let him remain with God.
25. Now, concerning virgins, I have not a commandment of the Lord: but I give my judgment as having obtained mercy of the Lord to be faithful. I declare this, then, to be good on account of the present distress, namely, that is is good for a man who is unmarried to continue so. Art thou bound to a wife?--Seek not to be loosed. Art thou loosed from a wife?--Seek not a [second] wife. And yet, if thou marry, thou hast not sinned; and if a virgin marry, she hath not sinned: nevertheless, affliction in the flesh such shall have; but I spare you. Now this I say, brethren, that the time being short, it remaineth, that both they who have wives, should be as not h aving wives: and they who weep, as not weeping: and they who rejoice, as not rejoicing: and they who buy, as not possessing: and they who use this world, as not abusing it. For the form of this world passeth by. Besides, I wish you to be without anxious care. The unmarried man anxiously careth for the things of the Lord, how he shall please the Lord. But he who hath married,anxiously careth for the things ofthe world, how he shall please his wife. The wife and the virgin are divided [in the same manner.] The unmarried woman anxiously careth for the things of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body and spirit; but she who hath married,anxiously careth for the things of the world, h ow she shall pleaseher husbnad. Now this I say for y our own benefit, not with a view to lay a snare for y ou; but for that which is becoming and best adapted to a steady, uninterrupted adherence to the Lord.*[App. No. LXX.] But, if any one thinketh he acteth improperly toward his virgin, if she be above age unmarried, and so needs to be married, let him do what she inclineth, he does not sin: let such marry. But he who standeth firm in his heart, not having necessity, and hath power concerning his own will, and hath determined this in his own heart, to keep his virgin, doth well. So then, even he who giveth her in marriage doth well; but he who giveth her not in marriage doth better.
39. A wife is bound by the law as long as her husband liveth; but if her husband be dead, she is at liberty to be married to whom she pleaseth; only in the Lord. But she is happier, if she continue as she is. This is my opinion, and I think [in this] I have a spirit of God.
VIII. Now, concerning things sacrificed to idols, we know that we all have knowledge. Knowledge puffeth up, but love buildeth up. If, therefore, any one is confident of knowing any thing, he hath known nothing yet as he ought to know. But if any one love God, the same is acknowledged by him.
4. Concerning, then, the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is no other God but one. For certainly, though there be who are called gods, whether in heaven, or upon earth (even as there be gods many, and lords many) yet to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom all things are, and we to him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom all things are, and we by him. However, this knowledge is not in all: for some, until this hour, in the conscience of the idol as a god, eat it as a thing sacrificed to the idol as a god; and hteir conscience, being weak,is defiled. But meat does not recommend us to God; for neither if we at, do we abound; neither if we do not eat, are we deficient. Nevertheless, take heed, lest perhaps this right of yours become a stumbling block to the weak. For if any one seethee who hast knowledge at table in an idol's temple, will not the conscience of him who is weak be encouraged to eat things sacrificed to idols? and through this thy knowledge shall the weak brother perish, for whom Christ died? And by thus sinning against the brethren, and wounding their weak conscience, ye sin against Christ. Wherefore, if meat make my brother stumble, I will never eat flesh, lest I make my brother stumble.
IX. Am I not an apostle? Am I not a freeman? Have I not seen Jesus Chrsit our Lord? Are ye not my rels in the Lord? If to others I be not an apostle,yet to you at least I am, for the seal of mine apostleship ye are in the LOrd. Mine answer to them who condemn me is this: Have we not a right to eat and to drink? Have we not a right to lead about a sister wife, as the other apostles, andthe brethren of the Lord, and Cephas? Or have I only and Barnabas not a right to forbear relsing? Who seveth in the wars on his own charges at any time? who planteth a vineyard, and doth not eat off the fruit of it? or who feedeth a flock, and dothnot eat of the milk of the flock? Do I speak these things according to man only? or doth not the law also say these things? For in the law of Moses it is written, "Thou shalt not muzzle the ox treading out the corn." Doth God take care of oxen only? Or, doth he command this chiefly for our sakes? For our sakes certainly it was written: because he who ploweth ought to plow in hope; and he who thresheth in hope, ought to partake of his own hope. If we have sown spiritual things in you, is it a great matter if we shall reap your carnal things? If others partake of this power over you, ought not we rather? Nevertheless we have not used this power; but we bear all things, that we may not give any hindrance to the gospel of Christ. Do ye not know that they who perform sacred offices, eat from the temple? they who wait at the altar, do not they share with the altar? So also the Lord hath appointed them who announce the gospel to live by the gospel. But I have used none of these precepts; neither have I written thse things that it should be so done to me; for it were good for me rather to die, than that any one should make my boasting void. For when I declare the gospel, Ihave nothing to boast of; becasue necessity is laid upon me; yea, woe is unto me, if I declare nothe gospel. Now if I do this willingly, I have a reward; but if unwillingly I am entrusted with the stewardship, I have no reward. What then to me is the reward? that when declaring the gospel, I shall establish the gospel of Christ without charge, in order that I may not abuse my power in the gospel. Therefore, though I be a freeman, with respect to all men, I have enslaved myself ot all, that I might gain the more. So to the Jews, I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews; to those under the law, as under the law, that Imight gain those under the law: To those without law, as without law, (yet not being without law to God, but under law to Christ) that I might gain those who are without law. To the weak, I became as weak, that I might gain the weak. To all I have become all things, that by all means I might save some. Now, this I do for the sake of the gospel, and that I may become a joint partaker of its rewards. Do ye not know that they who run in the Stadium*[The place where the athletes, or racers, contended for the prize given at the Isthmian Games, in the territory of Corinth.] run indeed all, but one only receiveth the prize? so run that ye may lay hold on the prize. Now, every one who contendeth is temperate in all things: they, indeed that they may receive a fading crown, but we one that does not fade. I therefore so run, as not out of view. So I box, as*[This is an allusion to the exercise with the gauntlet, used by the athletes, for the purpose of acquiring agility and dexterity in boxing.] not beating the air. But I bruise my body, and lead it captive, lest perhaps having proclaimed to others, I myself should be one not approved.
X. Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; and all were immersed into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; and all did eat the same spiritual meat; and all did drink the same spiritual drink; for they drank of the spiritual rock which followed them, and that rock was Christ. Nevertheless, with the greater part of them God was not well pleased,f or they were cast down in the wilderness. Now, these thigns have become examples to us, in order that we shold not be lusters after evil things, even as they lusted. Neither be ye idolaters, as some of them were; as it is written, "The people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to dance." Neither let us commit whoredome, a some of them committed whoredom, and fell in one day twenty-three thousand. Neither let us grievously tempt Christ, as even some of them tempted, and perished by serpents. Neither murmur ye, as even some of them murmured, andperished by the destroyer. Now, all thse things happened to them as examples, and are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the ages are come. Wherefore, let him who thinketh he standeth, take heed lest he fall. No temptation hath taken you, but such as belongs to man; and God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above what ye are able; but will make with the temptation also a passage out, that ye may be able to bear. Wherefore, my beloved, flee from idolatry. I speak as to wise men; judge ye what I say. The cup of blessing, for which we bless, is it not the joint participation of the blood of Christ? The loaf which we break, is it not the joint participation of the body of Christ? Because there is one loaf, we the many are one body: for we all participate of that one loaf. Look at Israel after the flesh. Are not they who eat of the sacrifices, joint partakers of the altar? What then do I affirm? that an idol is any thing, or that an idol sacrifice is any thing? No. But, that what the heathens sacrifice they sacrifice to demons, and not to God. Now, I would not have you to become joint partakers with demons. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of demons: ye cannot partake of the table of the Lord, and of the table of demons.*[App. No. LXXI.] Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? are we stronger than he? All meats are lawful to me, but all are not expedient; all are lawful to me, but all do not edify. Let no one seek his own [advantage only,] but each that of his neighbour also. Whatever is sold in the shambles, eat, asking no question on account of conscience; for the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof. And if any of the believers invite you and you incline to go, whatever is set before you, eat, asking no questins on account of conscience. But if any one say to you, This is a thing sacrificed to an idol: do not eat, on account of him who showed it, and of conscience: "For the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof." Now, I say conscience, not thine own, but that of the other. 'But why is my liberty judged by another's conscience. But if by favour I be a partaker, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks?'*[Supposed to be an objection of those who eat regardless of anothers (sic) conscience.] Whether then, ye eat, or drink, or whatever ye do, do all to the glory of God. Be ye no occasion of stumbling, neither to the Jews, nor to the Greeks, nor to the congregation of God. Even as I please all men in all things, not seeking mine own advantage only, but that of the many also, that they may be saved. Become ye imitators of me, even as I also am of Christ.
XI. 2.--Now I praise you, brethren, because in all things ye remember me, and hold fast the traditions as I delivered them to you. But I would have you know, that of every man the head is Christ, and the head of every woman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. Every man who prayeth or prophesieth, having a veil upon his head, dishonoureth his head. And every woman who prayeth or prophesieth with an unveiled head, dishonoureth her head. Besdies, it is one and the same with being shaven. Wherefore, if a woman be not veiled, even let her be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be veiled. Now man, indeed, ought not to veil the head, being the image and glory of God: but woman is the glory of man. Besides, manh is not of woman: but woman is of man. And also man was not created for the woman, but woman for the man. For this reason ought the woman to have a view on her head, on account of the messengers. However, neither is man without woman, nor woman without man, in the Lord. Besdies, as the woman is from the man, so also the man is by the woman; but all from God. Judge in yourselves, is it decent that a woman pray to God unveiled? Doth not even nature itself teach you, that if a man indeed have long hair, it is a disgrace to him? But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her: for her hair is given her for a veil. However, if any one resolves to be contentious, we have no such custom, neither the congregations of God.
17. Now, when I declare this, I praise you not, that ye come together, not for the better, but for the worse. For first, indeed, I hear, when ye come together in the congregation, there are schisms among you: and I partly believe it. For there must even be sects among you, that the approved may be made manifest among you. But your coming togetgher into one place, is not to eat the Lord's supper. For in eating it, every one taketh first his own supper, and one, verily, is hungry, and another is filled. What, have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? or do ye think amiss of the congregation of God, and put to shame those who have not a supper? What shall I say to you? Shall I praise you for this? I praise you not.
For I received from the Lord, what also I delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus, in the night in which he was betrayed, took a loaf,*[App. No. LXXII.] and, having given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. In like manner also the cup, after he had supped, saying, This cup is the new covenant in my blood: this do, as often as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. Wherefore, as often as ye eat this lkoaf, and drink this cup, ye openly publish the death of the Lord, till the time he come. So then, shosoever shall eat this loaf, and drink this cup, of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and then of the loaf let him eat, and of the cup let him drink. For he who eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh punishment to himself, not making a difference of the body of the Lord. For this cause, many among you are sick and infirm, and a good number are dead. But, if we would make a difference in ourselves, we should not be disapproved. But being judged of the Lord, we are corrected, that we may not with the world be condemned. Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, cordially receive*[NO FOOTNOTE GIVEN] one another. And if any hunger, let him eat at home; that ye may not come together to punishment. And the rest I will set in order when I come.
XII. Now, concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant. Ye knw that ye were heathens, led away to idols that are dumb, even as ye happened to be led. Wherefore, I inform you, that no one speaking by the Spirit of God, pronounceth Jesus accursed; and that no one can declare Jesus, Lord, except by the Holy Spirit. Now, there are diversities of ministries, but the same Lord. And there are diversities of in-relsings, but it is the same God who worketh inwardly all in all. And to each is given this manifestation of the spirit, for the advantage of all. Now, to one indeed, through the Spirit, is given the word of wisdom; and to another the word of knowledge, according to the same Spriit. And to another faith by the same Spirit; and to another the gifts of healing by the same Spriit; and to antoehr the in-relsings of powers; and to another prophecy; and to another discerning of spirits; and to another divers kinds of foreign tongues; and to another the interpretation of foreign tongues. Now, all these the one and the same spirit in-relseth, distributing to each his proper gifts as he pleaseth. For as the body is one, although it have many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body, so also is Christ. For, indeed, in one Spirit we all have been immersed into one body, whether Jews or Greeks; whether slaves or freemen; and all have been made to drink of one Spirit. Since, therefore, the body is not one member, but many, if the foot shall say, Because I am not the hand, I am not of the body; is it, for this, not of the body? And if the ear shall say, Because I am not the eye, I am not of the body; is it, for this, not of the body? If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? if the whole were hearing, where were the smelling? But now, God hath placed the members, every one of them in the body, as he hath pleased. Besides, if all were one member, where were the body? But now, indeed, there are many members, but one body. Therefore, the eye cannot say to the hand, I have no need of thee: nor again, the head to the feet, I have no need of you. Nay, those members of the body which seem to be more feeble, are much more necessary. And those which we think are less honourable members of the body, around them we throw more abundant honour; and so, our uncomely members have more abundant comeliness. But our comely members have no need. However, God hath tempered the body together, having given to trhe member whic wanteth it, more abundant honour. That there may be no schism in the body; but that the members may have the very same anxious care one for another. And so whether one member suffer, all the members jointly suffer; or one member be honoured, all the members jointly rejoice. Now ye are the body of Christ and members in part.*[App. No. LXXIII.] Therefore, these indeed God hath placed in the congregation; first, apostles; secondly, prophets; thirdly, teachers; next, poowers; then, gifts of healing; helpers, directors, kinds of foreign languages. Are all apostles? are all prophets? are all teachers? have all powers? have all the gift of healing? do all speak in foreign languages? do all interpret? Now ye earnestly desire the best gifts, but yet I show you a more excellent way. Though I could speak with the tongues of men and of heavenly messengers, but have not love, I become as sounding brass, or a noisy cymbal. And though I have prophecy, and know all secrets, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. And though I spend all my goods in feeding the poor, and though I deliver my body that I may be burned, but have not love, I am nothing profited. Love suffereth long and is kind. Love envieth not. Love doth not vaunt, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unbecomingly; doth not seek its own things only; is not exasperated; doth not imagnie evil: doth not rejoice in iniquity, but joiontly rejoiceth in the truth: covereth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Love never at any time faileth: but whether prophecies, they will be out of use; or foreign languages, they shall cease; or science, it shall be abolished. Besides, we know only in part, and prophesy in part. But when the perfect gift is come, the one in part shall be abolished. When I was a child, I spake as a child, I conceived as a child, I reasoned as a child. But when I became a man, I put away the things of a child. For now we see through a glass obscurely; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then I shall fully know, even as I am fully known. And now abideth faith, hope, love, these three; but the greatest of these is love. Pursue love, [then,] and earnestly desire spiritual gifts, but especially that ye may prophesy.*[Prophesy.--A general name denoting the speaking by inspiration in a known tongue, to the instruction of the congregation. When the apostles, who were endowed with the word of wisdom, and the superior prophets who were endowed with the word of knowledge prophesied, they did it by inspiration, called (verse 6) revelation and knowledge. But there were other kinds of inspiration, called (in the same verse) prophesy (sic) and doctrine, which belonged to the inferior prophets. These were said to prophesy, when by inspiration they uttered prayers and psalms in which the congregation joined them; or delivered a discourse relating to some point of doctrine or practice. Which being done in a known language, the congregation was edified, exhorted, and comforted. See verses 15 to 26.--Macknight.] For he that speaketh in a foreign language, speaketh not to men, but to God; for no one understandeth him; nevertheless by the Spirit he speaketh secrets. But he who prophesieth, speaketh to men for edification, and exhortation, and consolation. He who speaketh in a foreign language, edifieth himself; but he who prophesieth, edifieth the congregation. I wish, indeed, that ye all spake in foreign languages, but rather that ye prophesied; for greater is he who prophesieth than he who speaketh in foreign languaes, unless some one interpret, that the congregation may receive edification. For now, brethren, if I should come to you speaking in foreign languages, what shall I profit you, unless I shall speak to you intelligibly, either by revelation, or by knowledge, or by prophecy, or by doctrine? In like manner, things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, unless they give a difference to the notes, how shall it be known what is piped or harped? And therefore, if the trumpet give an unknown sound, who will prepare himself for battle? So also ye, unless with the tongue ye give intelligible speech, how shall it be known what is spoken? therefore ye will be speaking into the air. There are, perhaps, as many kinds of languages in the world as ye speak, and none of them is without signification. Yet, if I do not know the meaning of the language, I shall be to him who speaketh, a barbarian, and he who speaketh will be a barbarian to me. Wherefore, ye also, since ye are earnestly desirous of spiritual gifts, seek them, that ye may abound for the edification of the congregation. For which cause, let him who prayeth in a foreign language, pray so as some one may interpret. For if I pray in a foreign language, my spirit prayeth, but my meaning is without fruit. What then is to be done? I will pray with the Spirit, but I will pray also with meaning: I will sing with the Spirit, but I will sing also with meaning. Else, when thou shalt bless with the Spirit, he who filleth up the place of the private person, how shall he say the Amen to thy thanksgiving, since he knoweth not what thou sayest? For thou indeed givest thanks well, but the other is not efified. I give thanks to my God, speakingin foreign languages mor ethan all of you: yet in the congregation I had rather speak five sentences with my meaning understood, bthat I may instruct others also, than ten thousand sentences in a foreign language. Brethren, be not children in understanding; but in evil be ye children, and in understanding be ye full grown men. In the law it is written, "Surely, with other tongues, and with other lips, I will speak to this people; yet not even so will they hearken to me, saith the Lord." So that foreign languages are for a sign, not to believers, but to unbelieves: but prophecy is for a sign not to unbelievers, but to believers. If then, the whole congregation be come together in one place, and all speak in foreign languages, and there come in unlearned persons or unbelievers, will they not say that ye are mad? But if all prophesy, and there come in an unbelieer, or an unlearned person, he is reporved by all, he is examined by all. And thus the hidden things of his heart are made manifest; and so, falling on his face, he will worship God, carrying away word, that God actually is among you. What then is to be done, brethren? When ye are come together, each of you hath a psalm, hath a discourse, hath a foreign language, hath a revelation, hath an interpretation. Let all be done to edification. And, if any one speak in a foreign language, let it be by two, or at most three sentences, and separately; and let one interpret. But if there be no interpreter, let him be silent in the congregation; yet let him speak to himself, and to God. Now, let two or three prophets speak, and let the others discern. But if to another sitting by, any thing be revealed, let the first be silent. For ye can all prophesy one by one, so as all may learn and all be comforted. For the spiritual gifts of the prophets are subject to the prophets. Besides, if God is not the author of disturbance, but of peace; as in all the congregations of the saints is well known. Let your women be silent in the congregations: for it hath not been permitted to them to speak; but they must be in subjection, as also the law commandeth. And if they wish to learn any thing, let them ask their own husbands at home, for it is an indecent thing for women to speak in the congregation. What? went the word of God forth from you women? or did it only come to you? If any one be really a prophet, or a spiritual person, let him acknowledge the things I write to you, that they are the commandmetns of the Lord. And if any one be ignorant, let him be ignorant. Wherefore, brethren, earnestly desire to prophesy; and hinder not to speak in foreign languages. Let all things be done decently, and in order.
XV. Now, I declare to you, brethren, the glad tidings which I announced to you, which also ye received, and in which ye sstand. By which also ye are saved, if ye retain those joyful tidings which I delivered unto you; unless, indeed, ye have believed in vain. For I delivered to you among the first things, which also I received first, that Christ died for our sins, according to the scriptures; and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day, according to the scriptures; and that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve. After that he wa seen of above five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain to this present time, but some are fallen asleep. After that he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. And last of all he was seen of me also, as an abortive apostle. For I am the least of the apostles, who am not worthy to be called an apostle because I persecuted the congregation of God. But by the favour of God I am what I am: and his favour which was bestowed on me was not vain, for I have laboured more abundantly than all of them, yet not I, but the favour of God which is with me. Well then, whether I or they proclaim, thus we proclaim and thus ye believed. Now if it be proclaimed that Christ was raised from the dead, how can some among you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? For, if there be no resurrection of the dead, neither hath Christ been raised. And if Christ hath not been raised, false certainly is our proclamation, and false also is your faith. Besides, we are found even false witnesses concerning God, because we have witnessed against God, that he raised Christ, whom he raised not, if verily the dead are not raised. And, if the dead are not raised, neither hath Crhist been raised. Farther (sic), if Christ hath not been raised, your faith is useless; ye are still in your sins. Certainly also they who are fallen asleep for Christ, are perished. If in this life only we hve hop0e by Christ, we are of all men the most miserable. But now Christ is raised from the dead, and is become the first fruit of them who have fallen asleep. For since through a man came death, through a man also cometh the resurrection of the dead. Therefore as by Adam all die, so also, by Christ all shall bve made alive. But every one in his prper band; the first fruit, Christ; afterward they who are Christ's at his coming. Then the end shall be when he will deliver up the kingdom to God, even the Father, when he shall have destroyed all government, and all authority, and power. For he must reign, till he hath put all the enemies under his feet. The last enemy, Death, shall be destroyed. For he hath subjected all things under his feet. Now when it saith, that all things are subjected, manifset it is, that he is excepted, who hath subjected all things to him. Now, when all things are subjected to him, then even the Son himself shall be subjected to him, who subjected all things to him, that God may be over all things in all places. Otherwise, what shall they do who are immersed for the resurrection of the dead, if the dead rise not at all? and why are they immersed for the resurrection of the dead? Why are we also in danger every hour? By the boasting concerning you, which I have on account of Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily. If, after the manner of men, I have fought with wild beasts at Ephesus, what is the advantage to me, if the dead rise not? let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die. Be not deceived: Evil communications corrupt good manners. Awake, as is fit, and do not sin; for some of y ou are ignorant of God: for shame to you I speak this. But some one will say, How can the dead be raised up? and with what kind of body do they come? Thou simpleton! what thou sowest is not quickened unless it doe. And as to what thou sowest, thou sowest not the body which shall be, but naked grain, perhaps of wheat, or of some of the other kinds: but God giveth it a body, as it hath pleased him, and to each of the seeds its proper body. All flesh is not the same flesh: but there is one flesh indeed of men, and another flesh of beasts, and another of fishes, and another of fowls. And there are bodies celestial, and bodies terrrestrial: but different indeed, is the glory of the celestial, and different that of the terrestrial. The glory of the sun is one, and the glory of the moon another, and the glory of the stars another: moreover, star excelleth star in glory. Wherefore, even the resurrection of the dead is poossible: it is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption: it is sown in dishonour, it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power: it is sown an animal body, it is raised a spiritual body. For thus it is written, "The first man Adam was made a living soul, the last Adama a vivifying spirit." However, that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is animal; ad then that which is spiritual. The first man, from the earth was earthy; the second man, the Lord from heaven, is heavenly. As the earthy, such also the earthy [shall be:] and as the heavenly,such also the heavenly shall be. For, as we have borne the image of the earthy man, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly man. And this I affirm, brethren, because flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neitehr can corruption inherit incorruption. Behold, I tell you a secret; we shall not indeed all die, but we shall all be changd, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for it shall sound, and then the dead shall be raised incorruptible; and we shall be changed. For this corruptible body must put onincorruption, and this mortal body must put on immortality. Now when this corruptible body shall put on immortality, then that saying of scripture shall be accomplished, "Death is swallowed up for ever." Where, O death! is thy sting? where O hades! is thy victory? for the sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law. Now thanks be to God who giveth us the victory, through our Lord Jesus Christ. Wherefore, my beloved brethren, be ye stable, unmoved, abounding in the rels of the Lord at all times, knowing that your labour in the Lord is not vain.
XVI. Now, concerning the collection which is for the saints; as I ordered the congregations in Galatia, so also do ye. On the first day of every week, let each of you lay somewhat by itself, according as he may have prospered, putting it into the treasury, that when I come there may be then no collections. And when I come, whomsoever ye shall approve by letters, them I will send to carry your gift to Jerusalem. Or, if it be poroper that even I should go, they shall go with me. Now,I willc ome to ou, when I have passed thorugh Macedonia, (for I do pass through Macedonia;) and, perhaps, I shall abide, and even winter with you, that ye may send me forward, withersoever I may go. For I will not now see you in passing, but I hope to remain with you some time, if the Lord permit. However, I shall remain at Ephesus until Pentecost. For a great and effectual door is opened to me, yet there are many opposers. Now, if Timothy be come, take care that he be among you without fear; for he relseth even as I do, the rels of the Lord. Wherefore, let no one despise him; but send him forward in peace, that he may come to me; for I expect him with the brethren. And with relation to our brother Apollos, I entreated him much to go to you with the brethren: but his inclination was not at all to go now, but he will go when he shall find a convenient season. Watch ye; stand fast in the faith; quit yourselves like men; be strong. Let all your matters be done with love. Ye know the family of Stephanas, that it is the first fruit of Achaia, and that they have devoted themselves to the ministry to the saints. I entreat you, therefore, brethren, that ye submit yourselves to such, and to every joint relser and labourer. I am glad of the coming of Stephanas, and Fortunatus, and Archaicus; for they have supplied your deficiency; and have refreshed my spirit and yours: wherefore, acknowledge ye such persons. The congregations of Asia salute you. Aquila and Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the congregation which is in their house. All the brethren salute you. Salute one another with a holy kiss. The salutation of Paul with mine own hand. If any one love not the Lord Jesus Christ, he shall be accursed when the Lord comes.*[App. No. LXXIV.] The favour of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. My love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen.