FIRST PUBLISHED IN GREECE, A. D. 64.*[App. No. I.]
I. FORASMUCH as many have undertaken to compose a narrative of
those things which have been accomplished amongst us, as they who
were, from the beginning, eye witnesses, and afterwards ministers
of the word, delivered them to us; I have also determined, having
exactly traced every thing from the first, to write a particular
account to thee, most excellent Theophilus; that thou mayest knew
the certainty of those matters wherein thou hast been
I. FORASMUCH as many have undertaken to compose a narrative of those things which have been accomplished amongst us, as they who were, from the beginning, eye witnesses, and afterwards ministers of the word, delivered them to us; I have also determined, having exactly traced every thing from the first, to write a particular account to thee, most excellent Theophilus; that thou mayest knew the certainty of those matters wherein thou hast been instructed.
5. In the days of Herod, king of Judea, there was a priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abijah; and his wife, named Elizabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron. They were both righteous before God, blameless observers of all the Lord's commandments and ordinances. And they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they were both advanced in years.
Now when he came to officiate as priest in the order of his course, it fell to him by lot, according to the custom of the priesthood, to offer incense in the sanctuary. And while the incense was burning, the whole congregation were praying without. Then there appeared to him a messenger of the Lord, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. And Zacharias was discomposed at the sight, and in great terror. But the messenger said to him, Fear not, Zadcahariass; for thy prayer is heard, and Elizabeth thy wife shall bear thee a son, whom thou shalt name John.*[The Lord's favour.] He shall be to thee matter of joy and transport; and many shall rejoice because of his birth. For he shall be great before the Lord; he shall not drink wine, nor any fermented liquor; but he shall be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. And many of the sons of Israel he shall bring back to the Lord their God. Moreover, he shall go before them in the spirit and power of Elijah, to reconcile fathers to their children, and, by the wisdom of the righteous, to render the disobedient a people well disposed for the Lord. And Zacharias said to the messenger, Whereby shall I know this: for I am an old man, and my wife is advanced in years? The messenger answering, said unto him, I am Gabriel,*[God's power.] who attend in the presence of God, and am sent to tell thee this joyful news. But knwo that thou shalt be dumb, and shalt not recover thy speech, until the day when these things happen; because thou hast not believed my words, which shall be fulfilled in due time.
21. Meantime the people waited for Zacharias, and wondered that he staid so long in the sanctuary. But when he came out, he could not speak to them; and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the sanctuary; for he made them understand by signs, and remained speechless. And when his days of officiating were expired, he returned home. Soon after, Elizabeth his wife conceived, and lived in retirement five months, and said, The Lord hath done this for me, purposing now to deliver me from the reproach I lay under among men.
Now in the sixth month God sent Gabriel his messenger, to Nazareth, a city of Galilee; to a virgin betrothed to a man called Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary. When the messenger entered, he said to her, Hail, favourite of heaven! the Lord be with thee, thou happiest of women! At his appearance and words she was perplexed, and revolved in her mind what this salutation could mean. And the messenger said to her, Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favour with God. And behold, thou shalt conceive and bear a son, whom thou shalt name Jesus.*[Saviour.] He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest. And the Lord God will give him the throne of David his father. And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever: his reign shall never end. Then said Mary to the messenger, How shall this be, since I have no intercourse with man? The messenger answering, said unto her, The Holy Spirit will descend upon thee, and the power of the Highest will overshadow thee; therefore the Holy progeny shall be called the Son of God. And lo, thy cousin Elizabeth also hath conceived a son in her old age; and she who is called barren, is now in her sixth month: for nothing is impossible with God. And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord. Be it unto me according to thy word. Then the messenger departed.
39. In those days Mary set out and travelled expeditiously into the hill-country, to a city of Judah; where having entered the house of Zacharias, she saluted Elizabeth. As soon as Elizabeth heard Mary's salutation, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit, and cried with a loud voice, Thou art the most blessed of women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. But how have I deserved this honour, to be visited by the mother of my Lord! for know, that as soon as the sound of thy salutation reached mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy. And happy is she who believed, that the things which the Lord hath promised her, shall be performed.
Then Mary said, My soul magnifieth the Lord, and my spirit rejoiceth in God my Saviour; because he hath not disdained the low condition of his handmaid, for henceforth all posterity will pronounce me happy. For the Almighty, whose name is venerable, hath done wonders for me. His mercy on them who fear him, extendeth to generations of generations. He displayeth the strength of his arm, and dispelleth the vain imaginations of the proud. He pulleth down potentates from their thrones, and exalteth the lowly. The needy he loadeth with benefits; but the rich he spoileth of every thing. He supporteth Israel his servant (as he promised to our fathers,) ever inclined to mercy towards Abraham and his race. And Mary, after staying with Elizabeth about three months, returned home.
57. When the time for Elizabeth's delivery was come, she brought forth a son: and her neighbours and relations who heard that the Lord had shown her great kindness, congratulated with her. And on the eighth day, when they came to the child's circumcision, they would have him called by his father's name, Zacharias. And his mother interposed, saying, No; but he shall be called John. They said unto her, There is none of thy kindred of that name. They therefore asked his father by signs, how he would have him called. He having demanded a table-book, wrote thereon, 'His name is John,' which surprised them all. And his mouth was opened directly, and his tongue loosed. And he spake, praising God. Now all in the neighbourhood were struck with awe; and the fame of these things spread throughout all the hill-country of Judea. And all who heard these things, pondering them in their hearts, said, What will this child prove hereafter? And the hand of the Lord was with him.
Then Zacharias, his father, being filled with the Holy Spirit, prophesied, saying, Blessed be the Lord the God of Israel, because he hath visited and redeemed his people; and (as anciently he promised by his holy Prophets) hath raised a prince for our deliverance from our enemies, and from the hands of all who hate us; in kindness to our forefathers, and remembrance of his holy covenent; the oath which he swore to our father Abraham, to grant unto us, that being rescued out of the hands of our enemies, we might serve him boldly, in piety and uprightness, all the days of our life. And thou, child, shalt be called a Prophet of the Most High; for thou shalt go before the Lord, to prepare his way, by giving the knowledge of salvation to his people, in the remission of their sins, through the tender compassion of our God, who hath caused a light to spring from on high to visit us, to enlighten those who abide in darkness and in the shades of death, to direct our feet into the way of peace.
Now the child grew, and acquired strength of mind, and continued in the deserts, until the time when he made himself known to Israel.
II. About that time Cesar Augustus issued an edict that all the inhabitants of the empire should be registered. (This first register*[App. No. XIV.] took effect when Cyrenius*[In the Latin authors Quirinius.] was president of Syria.) When all went to be registered, every one to his own city, Joseph also went from Nazareth, a city of Galilee, to the city of David in Judea called Bethlehem (for he was of the house and lineage of David,) to be registered, with Mary his betrothed wife, who was pregnant. While they were there, the time came that she should be delivered. And she brought forth her first-born son, and swathed him, and laid him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the house allotted to strangers.
8. Now there were shepherds in the fields in that country, who tended their flock by turns through the night-watches. On a sudden a messenger of the Lord stood by them, and a divine glory encompassed them with light, and they were frightened exceedingly. But the messenger said to them, Fear not; for lo I bring you good tidings, which shall prove matter of great joy to all the people; because to-day is born unto you, in the city of David, a Saviour, who is the Lord Messiah. And by this ye shall know him; ye shall find a babe in swaddling bands, lying in the manger. Instantly the messenger was attended by a multitude of the heavenly host, who praised God, saying, 'Glory to God in the highest heaven, and peace upon earth, and good will among*[App. No. XV.] men.'
And when the messengers returned to heaven, having left the shepherds, these said one to another, Let us go to Bethlehem, and see this which hath happened, whereof the Lord hath informed us. And hastening thither, they found Mary and Joseph with the babe who lay in the manger. When they saw this, they published what had been imparted to them concerning this child. And all who heard it, wondered at the things told them by the shepherds. But Mary let none of these things escape unobserved, weighing every circumstance within herself. And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all that they had heard and seen, agreeably to what had been declared unto them.
On the eighth day, when the child was circumcised, they called him Jesus, the messenger having given him that name before his mother conceived him.
22. And when the time of their purification was expired, they carried him to Jerusalem, as the law of Moses appointeth, to present him to the Lord (as it is written in the law of God, "Every male, who is the first-born of his mother, is consecrated to the Lord;") and to offer the sacrifice enjoined in the law, a pair of turtle-doves, or two young pigeons.
Now there was at Jerusalem a man named Simeon, a just and a religious man, who expected the consolation of Israel; and the Holy Spirit was upon him, and had revealed unto him, that he should not die until he had seen the Lord's Messiah. This man came, guided by the Spirit, into the temple. And when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him what the law required, he took him into his arms, and blessed God, and said, Now, Lord, thou dost in peace dismiss thy servant, according to thy word; for mine eyes have seen the Saviour, whom thou hast provided in the sight of all the world; a luminary to enlighten the nations, and be the glory of Israel thy people. And Joseph, and the mother of Jesus, heard with admiration the things spoken concerning him. And Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary his mother, This child is destined for the fall and the rise of many in Israel, and to serve as a mark for contradiction (yea, thine own soul shall be pierced as with a javelin;) that the thoughts of many hearts may be disclosed.
There was also a prophetess, Anna, daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher, in an advanced age, who had lived seven years with a husband, whom she married when a virgin; and being now a widow of about eighty-four years, departed not from the temple, but served God in prayer and fasting night and day; she also coming in at that instant, gave thanks to the Lord, and spake concerning Jesus to all those in Jerusalem who expected deliverance.
After they had performed every thing required by the law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to their own city Nazareth. And the child grew and acquired strength of mind, being filled with wisdom, and adorned with a divine gracefulness.
41. Now the parents of Jesus went yearly to Jerusalem at the feast of the passover. And when he was twelve years old, they having gone thither, according to the usage of the festival, and remained the customary time; being on their return, the child Jesus staid behind in Jerusalem, and neither Joseph nor his mother knew it. They supposing him to be in the company, went a day's journey, and then sought him among their relations and acquaintance; but not finding him, they returned to Jerusalem, seeking him. And after three days, they found him in the temple, sitting among the doctors, both hearing them and asking them questions. And all who heard him were astonished; but they who saw him were amazed at his understanding and answers. And his mother said to him, Son, why hast thou treated us thus? Behold, thy father and I have sought thee with sorrow. He answered, Why did ye seek me? Knew ye not that I must be at my Father's? But they did not comprehend his answer.
And he returned with them to Nazareth, and was subject unto them. And his mother treasured up all these things in her memory. And Jesus advanced in wisdom and stature, and in power with God and man.
III. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberias, Pontius Pilate being procurator of Judea, Herod tetrarch of Galilee, Philip his brother tetrarch of Iturea, and the province of Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene: ins the high priesthood of Annas*[Called by Josephus, Ananus.] and Caiaphas, the word of God came, in the wilderness, to John the son of Zacharias. And he went through all the country along the Jordan, publishing the immersion of reformation for the remission of sins. As it is written in the book of the Prophet Isaiah, "The voice of one proclaiming in the wilderness, prepare a way for the Lord,*[Jehovah.] make for him a straight passage. Let every valley be filled, every mountain and hill be levelled; let the crooked roads be made straight, and the rough ways smooth, that all flesh may see the Saviour [sent] of God." Then said he to the multitudes who flocked out to be immersed by him, Offspring of vipers, who hath prompted you to flee from the impending vengeance? Produce then the proper fruits of reformation; and not say within yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father;' for I assure you, that of these stones God can raise children to Abraham. And even now the axe lieth at the root of the trees. Every tree, therefore, which produceth not good fruit, is felled and thrown into the fire.
10. Upon this the multitude asked him, What must we do then? He answered, Let him who hath two coats impart to him who hath none; and let him who hath victuals do the same. There came also publicans to be immersed, who said, Rabbi, what must we do? He answered, Exact no more than what is appointed you. Soldiers likewise asked him, And what must we do? He answered, Injure no man, either by violence, or false accusation, and be content with your allowance.
As the people were in suspense concerning John, every man imagining within himself that he might be the Messiah, John addressed them all, saying, I indeed immerse in water; but one mightier than I cometh, whose shoe-latchet I am not worthy to untie; he will immerse you in the Holy Spirit and fire: his winnowing shovel is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his grain; he will gather the wheat into his granary, and consume the chaff in unquenchable fire. And with many other exhortations, he published the good tidings to the people.
But Herod the tetrarch having been reproved by him, on account of Herodias his brother's wife, and for all the crimes which Herod had committed, added this to the number, that he confined John in prison.
Now when John immersed all the people, Jesus was likewise immersed; and while he prayed, the heaven was opened, and the Holy Spirit descended upon him in a bodily form, like a dove; and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I delight. Now Jesus was himself about thirty years in subjection, being (as was supposed)* [App/ No. XVI.] a son of Joseph, son of Heli, son of Matthat, son of Levi, son of Melchi, son of Janna, son of Joseph, son of Mattathias, son of Amos, son of Nahum, son of Esli, son of Naggai, son of Maath, son of Mattathias, son of Shimei, son of Joseph, son of Judah, son of Joanna, son of Reza, son of Zerubabel, son of Salathiel, son of Neri, son of Melchi, son of Addi, son of Cosam, son of Elmodam, son of Er, son of Joses, son of Eliezer, son of Jorim, son of Matthat, son of Levi, son of Simeon, son of Judah, son of Joseph, son of Jonan, son of Eliakim, son of Meleah, son of Mainan, son of Mattatha, son of Nathan, son of David, son of Jesse, son of Obed, son of Boaz, son of Salmon, son of Nahshon, son of Aminadab, son of Ram, son of Hezron, son of Pharez, son of Judah, son of Jacob, son of Isaac, son of Abraham, son of Terah, son of Nahor, son of Serug, son of Reu, son of Peleg, son of Eber, son of Salah, son of Cainan, son of Arphaxad, son of Shem, son of Noah, son of Lamech, son of Methuselah, son of Enoch, son of Jared, son of Mehalaliel, son of Cainan, son of Enos, son of Seth, son of Adam, son of God.
IV. Now Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, where he continued forty days, and was tempted by the devil. Having eaten nothing all that time, when it was ended, he was hungry. And the devil said to him, If thou be a Son of God, command this stone to become bread. Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, "Man liveth not by bread only, but by whatever God pleaseth." Then the devil having brought him to the top of a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the earth in an instant, and said to him, All this power and glory I will give thee; for it is delivered to me, and to whomsoever I will, I give it; if, therefore, thou wilt worship me, it shall all be thine. Jesus answering, said, It is written, "Thou shalt worship the Lord*[App. No. XVI.] thy God, and shalt serve him only." Then he brought him to Jerusalem, and placing him on the battlement of the temple, said to him, If thou be a Son of God, throw thyself down hence; for it is written, "He will give his messengers charge concerning thee to keep thee; and in their arms they shall uphold thee, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone." Jesus answered, It is said, "Thou shalt not put the Lord *[Jehovah.] thy God to the proof." When the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a time.
14. Then Jesus, by the impulse of the Spirit, returned to Galilee, and his renown spread throughout the whole country, and he taught in their synagogues with universal applause.
Being come to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, he entered the synagogue, as his custom was, on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. And they put into his hands the book of the Prophet Isaiah, and having opened the book, he found the place where it was written, "The Spirit of the Lord*[Jehovah.] is upon me, inasmuch as he hath anointed me to publish glad tidings to the poor; he hath commissioned me to heal the broken-hearted, to announce liberty to the captives, and recovery of sight to the blind, to release the oppressed, to proclaim the year of acceptance with the Lord.*[Jehovah.]" And having closed the book, and returned it to the servant, he sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed upon him. And he began with saying to them, This very day the Scripture which ye have just now heard is fulfilled. And all extolled him; but being astonished at the words full of grace which he uttered, they said, Is not this Joseph's son? He said unto them, Ye will doubtless apply to me this proverb, 'Physician, cure thyself.' Do as great things here in thine own country, as we hear thou hast done in Capernaum. But in fact, added he, no Prophet was ever well received in his own country. I tell you of a truth, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when heaven was shut up for three years and a half, so that there was great famine throughout all the land: yet to none of them was Elijah sent, but to a widow in Sarepta*[In the Old Testament, Zarephath.] of Sidonia. There were likewise many lepers in Israel in the days of Elisha the Prophet: and Naaman the Syrian was cleansed, but none of those. On hearing this, the whole synagogue were enraged, and breaking up, drove him out of the city, and brought him to the brow of the mountain whereon their city was built, that they might throw him down headlong. But he passing through the midst of them, went away.
31. Then he came to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and taught them on the Sabbath. And they were astonished at his manner of teaching; for he spoke with authority.
Now there was in the synagogue a man possessed by the spirit of an unclean demon, who roared out, saying, Ah! Jesus of Nazareth, what hast thou to do with us? Art thou come to destroy us? I know who thou art, the Holy One of God. And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Be silent, and come out of him. Whereupon the demon, having thrown him down in the middle of the assembly, came out without harming him. And they were all in amazement, and said one to another, What meaneth this, that with authority and power he commandeth the unclean spirits, and they come out? Thenceforth his fame was blazed in every corner of the country.
When he was gone out of the synagogue, he entered the house of Simon, whose wife's mother had a violent fever, and they entreated him on her behalf. Jesus standing near her, rebuked the fever, and it left her, and she instantly arose and served them.
After sunset, all they who had any sick, of whatever kind of disease, brought them to him; and he, laying his hands on every one, cured them. Demons also came out of many, crying out, Thou art the Messiah, the Son of God. But he rebuked them, and would not allow them to speak, because they knew that he was the Messiah. When it was day, he retired into a desert place; and the multitude sought him out, and came to him, and urged him not to leave them; but he said to them, I must publish the good tidings of the reign of God in other cities also, because for this purpose I am sent. Accordingly he made this publication in the synagogues of Galilee.
V. One time, as he stood by the lake of Gennezareth,*[In the Old Testament, Chinnereth.] the multitude pressing upon him to hear the word of God, he saw two barks aground near the edge, but the fishermen were on shore washing their nets. Having gone aboard one of them, which was Simon's, he desired him to put off a little from the land. Then he sat down, and taught the people out of the bark.
When he had done speaking, he said to Simon, Launch out into deep water, and let down your nets for a draught. Simon answered, Master, we have toiled all night, and have caught nothing; nevertheless, at thy word, I will let down the net. Having done this, they inclosed such a multitude of fishes, that the net began to break. And they beckoned to their companions in the other bark to come and help them. And they came and laded both the barks, so that they were near sinking. When Simon Peter saw this, he threw himself at Jesus' knees, crying, Depart from me, Lord, for I am a sinful man. For the draught of fishes which they had taken had filled him and all his companions with terror, particularly James and John, sons of Zebedee, who were Simon's partners. And Jesus said to Simon, Fear not, henceforth thou shalt catch men. And having brought their barks to land, they forsook all and followed him.
12. When he was in one of the neighbouring cities, a man covered with leprosy, happening to see him, threw himself on his face, and besought him, saying, Master, if thou wilt, thou canst cleanse me. Jesus stretching out his hand, and touching him, said, I will; be thou cleansed. That instant his leprosy departed from him. And he commanded him to tell nobody. But go [said he,] show thyself to the priest, and present the offering appointed by Moses, for notifying to the people that thou art cleansed. Yet so much the more was Jesus every where talking of, that vast multitudes flocked to hear him, and to be curred by him of their maladies. And he withdrew into solitary places, and prayed.
One day, as he was teaching, and pharisses, (sic) and doctors of law, who had come from Jerusalem, and from every town of Galilee and Judea, were sitting by; the power of the Lord was exerted in the cure of the sick. And behold some men carrying on a bed a man afflicted with a palsy, endeavoured to bring him in, and place him before Jesus; but finding it impracticable by reason of the crowd, they gat upon the roof, and let him down through the tiling, with the little bed in the midst before him. Jesus perceiving their faith, said to him, Man, thy sins are forgiven thee. On which the scribes and the pharisees reasoned thus, 'Who is this that speaketh blasphemies? Can any one forgive sins beside God?' Jesus knowing their thoughts, addressed himself to them, and said, What are ye reasoning in your hearts? Whether is easier, to say, 'Thy sins are forgiven thee;' or to say [with effect] 'Arise and walk?" But, that ye may know that the Son of Man hath power upon the earth to forgive sins, Arise (said he to the palsied man,) take up thy bed, and return to thy house. That instant he rose in their presence, took up his bed, and returned home, glorifying God. Seeing this, they were all struck with amazement and reverence, and glorified God, saying, We have seen incredible things to-day.
27. After this he went out, and observing a publican named Levi sitting at the toll-office, said to him, Follow me. And he arose, left all, and followed him. And Levi made him a great entertainment in his own house, where there was a great company of publicans and others at table with them. But the scribes and the pharisees of the place murmured, saying to his disciples, Why do ye eat and drink with publicans and sinners? Jesus answering, said unto them, It is not the healthy, but the sick, who need a physician. I am come to call, not the righteous, but sinners, to reformation.
Then they asked him, How is it that the disciples of John, and likewise those of the pharisees, frequently fast and pray, but thine eat and drink? He answered, Would ye have the bridemen fast, while the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come wherein the bridegroom shall be taken from them: in those days they will fast. He added this similitude, Nobody mendeth an old mantle with new cloth; otherwise the new will rend the old; besides, the old and new will never suit each other. Nobody putteth new wine into old leathern bottles; otherwise the new wine will burst the bottles, and thus the wine will be spilled, and the bottles rendered useless. But if new wine be put into new bottles, both will be preserved. Besides, a man, after drinking old wine, calleth not immediately for new; for he saith, 'The old is milder.'
VI. On the Sabbath called secondprime,*[App. No. XVII.] as Jesus was passing through the cornfields, his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and rubbed them in their hands, and ate them. And some pharisees said to them, Why do ye that which it is not lawful, on the Sabbath, to do? Jesus replying, said to them, Did ye never read what David and his attendants did, when they were hungry; how he entered the mansion of God, and took and ate the loaves of the presence, and gave also of this bread to his attendants; though it cannot be eaten lawfully by any but the priests? he added, The Son of Man is master even of the Sabbath.
6. It happened also, on another Sabbath, that he went into the synagogue, and taught; and a man was there, whose right hand was blasted. Now the scribes and the pharisees watched to see whether he would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find matter for accusing him. But he knowing their thoughts, said to the man whose hand was blasted, Arise, and stand in the middle. And he arose and stood. Then Jesus said to them, I would ask you, What is it lawful to do on the Sabbath? Good or ill? To save or to destroy? And looking around on them all, he said to the man, Stretch out thy hand; and in doing this, his hand was rendered sound like the other. But they were filled with madness, and consulted together what they should do to Jesus.
In those days Jesus retired to a mountain to pray, and spent the whole night in an oratory.*[App. No. XVIII.] When it was day, he called to him his disciples; and of them he chose twelve, whom he named Apostles. Simon, whom he also named Peter, and Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, Matthew and Thomas, James son of Alpheus, and Simon called the Zealous, Judas brother of James, and Judas Iscariot, who proved a traitor.
Afterward, Jesus coming down with them, stopped in a plain, whither a company of his disciples, with a vast multitude from all parts of Judea, Jerusalem, and the maritime country of Tyre and Sidon, were come to hear him, and to be healed of their diseases. Those also who were infested with unclean spirits, came and were cured. And every one strove to touch him, because a virtue came from him, which healed them all.
20. Then lifting his eyes on his disciples, he said, Happy ye poor, for the kingdom of God is yours! Happy ye that hunger now, for ye shall be satisifed! Happy ye that weep now, for ye shall laugh! Happy shall ye be when men shall hate you, and separate you from their society; yea, reproach and defame you, on account of the Son of Man! Rejoice on that day, and triumph, knowing that your reward in heaven is great! for thus did their fathers treat the Prophets. Bo wo unto you rich; for ye have received your comforts! Wo unto you that are full; for ye shall hunger! Wo unto you who laugh now; for ye shall mourn and weep! Wo unto you, when men shall speak well of you; for so did their fathers of the false prophets.
But I charge you, my hearers, love your enemies, do good to them who hate you, bless them who curse you, and pray for them who traduce you. To him who smiteth thee on one cheek, present the other; and from him who taketh thy mantle, withhold not thy coat. Give to every one who asketh thee; and from him who taketh away thy goods, do not demand them back. And as ye would that men should do unto you, do ye likewise unto them. For if ye love those [only] who love you, what thanks are ye entitled to? Since even sinners love those who love them. And if ye do good to those [only] who do good to you, what thanks are ye entitled to? since even sinners do the same. And if ye lend to those [only] from whom ye hope to receive, what thanks are ye entitled to? since even sinners lend to sinners, that they may recevie as much in return. But love ye your enemies, do good and lend, nowise despairing; and your reward shall be great; and ye shall be sons of the Most High; for he is kind to the ungrateful and malignant. Be therefore merciful, as your Father is merciful.
Judge not, and ye shall not be judged; condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned; release, and ye shall be released; give, and ye shall get: good measure, pressed and shaken, and heaped, shall be poured into your lap; for with the same measure wherewith ye give to others, ye yourselves will receive.
39. He used also this comparison: Can the blind guide the blind? Will not both fall into a ditch? The disciple is not above his teacher; but every finished disciple shall be as his teacher. And why observest thou the mote in thy brother's eye; but perceivest not the thorn*[App. No. XIX.] in thine own eye? Or how canst thou say to thy brother, 'Brother, let me take out the mote which is in thine eye,' not considering that there is a thorn in thine own eye? Hypocrite, first take the thorn out of thine own eye: then thou wilt see to take out the mote which is in thy brother's eye. That is not a good tree which yieldest bad fruit; nor is that a bad tree which yieldeth good fruit. For every tree is known by its own fruit. Figs are not gathered off thorns; nor grapes off a bramble-bush. The good man, out of the good treasure of his heart, bringeth that which is good: the bad man, out of the bad treasure of his heart, bringeth that which is bad; for it is out of the fullness of his heart that his mouth speaketh.
But why do ye, in addressing me, cry, Master, Master, and obey not what I command? Whoever cometh to me, and heareth my precepts, and practiseth them, I will show you whom he resembleth: he resembleth a man who built a house, and digging deep, laid the foundation upon the rock: and when an inundation came, the torrent broke upon that house, but could not shake it; for it was founded upon the rock. But he who heareth, and doth not practise, resembleth a man who, without laying a foundation, built a house upon the earth; which, when the torrent brake against it, fell, and became a great pile of ruins.*[App. No. XX.]
VII. When he had finished his discourse in the audience of the people, he entered Capernaum. And a centurion's servant, who was dear to his master, was sick, and in danger of dying. And the centurion having heard concerning Jesus, sent to him Jewish elders, to entreat him to come and save his servant. When they came to Jesus, they earnestly besought him, saying, He is worthy of this favour; for he loveth our nation; and it was he who built our synagogue. Then Jesus went with them; and when he was not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him to say, Master, trouble not thyself; for I have not deserved that thou shouldst come under my roof; wherefore neither thought I myself fit to come into thy presence: say but the word, and my servant will be healed. For even I, who am under the authority of others, having soldiers under me, say to one, 'Go,' and he goeth; to another, 'Come,' and he cometh; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he doth it. Jesus hearing these things, admired him, and turning, said to the multitude which followed, I assure you I have not found so great faith, even in Israel. And they who had been sent having returned to the house, found the servant well who had been sick.
11. The day following, he went into a city called Nain, accompanied by his disciples and a great crowd. As he approached the gate of the city, the people were carrying out a dead man, the only son of his mother, who was a widow; and many of the citizens were with her. When the Lord saw her, he had pity upon her, and said to her, Weep not. Then he advanced, and touched the bier (the bearers stopping) and said, Young man, arise, I command thee. Then he who had been dead, sat up, and began to speak, and Jesus delivered him to his mother. And all present were struck with awe, and glorified God, saying, A great Prophet hath arisen among us; and, God hath visited his people. And this report concerning him spread throughout Judea and all the neighbouring country.
Now John's disciples having informed their master of all these things, he called two of them, whom he sent to Jesus to ask him, Art thou he who cometh? or must we expect another? Being come to him, they said, John the Immerser hath sent us to ask thee, Art thou he who cometh? or must we expect another? At that very time Jesus was delivering many from diseases and maladies, and evil spirits, and giving sight to many who were blind. And he returned this answer, Go, and report to John what ye have seen and heard: the blind are made to see, the lame to walk, the deaf to hear; the leprous are cleansed, the dead are raised, glad tidings is brought to the poor. And happy is he to whom I shall not prove a strumbling-block.
When John's messengers were departed, Jesus said to the multitude concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to behold? a reed shaken by the wind? But what went ye out to see? a man effeminately dressed? It is in royal palaces [not in deserts] that they who wear splendid apparel, and live in luxury, are found. What then did ye go to see? a prophet? yea, I tell you, and something superior to a prophet. For this is he, concerning whom it is written, "Behold I send my messenger before thee, who shall prepare thy way." For I declare unto you, among those who are born of women, there is not a greater prophet than John the Immerser; yet the least in the reign of God shall be greater than he. All the people, even the publicans, who heard John, have, by receiving immersion from him, honoured God; whereas the Pharisees and the lawyers, in not being immersed by him, have rejected the counsel of God with regard to themselves.
Whereunto then shall I compare the men of this generation? whom are they like? They are like children in the market-place, of whom their companions complain and say, 'We have played to you upon the pipe, but ye have not danced; we have sung mournful songs to you, but ye have not wept.' For John the Immerser is come abstaining from bread and from wine, and ye say, 'He hath a demon.' The Son of Man is come using both, and ye say, 'He is a lover of banquets and wine, an associate of publicans and sinners.' But wisdom is justified by all her children.
36. Now one of the Pharisees asked Jesus to eat with with (sic) him: and he went into the Pharisee's house, and placed himself at table. And behold a woman in the city who was a sinner, knowing that he ate at the house of the Pharisee, brought an alabaster box of balsam, and standing behind at his feet weeping, bathed them with tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with the balsam. The Pharisee who had invited him, observing this, said within himself, 'If this man were a prophet, he would have known who this woman is that toucheth him, and of what character; for she is a sinner.' Then Jesus said to him, Simon, I have something to say to thee. He answered, Say it, Rabbi. A certain creditor had two debtors; one owed five hundred denarii,*[Sixty-two dollars, forty cents.], the other fifty.*[Six dollars, twenty-four cents.] But not having wherewith to pay, he freely forgave them both. Say then, which of them will love him most? Simon answered, I suppose he to whom he forgave most. Jesus replied, Thou hast judged rightly. Then turning to the woman, he said to Sikmon, Thou seest this woman: when I came into thy house, thou gavest me no water for my feet, but she hath washed my feet with tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head. Thou gavest me no kiss; but she, since she entered, hath not ceased kissing my feet. Thou didst not anoint my head with oil, but she hath anointed my feet with balsam. Wherefore, I tell thee, her sins, which are many, are forgiven; therefore her love is great. But he to whom little is forgiven, hath little love. Then he said to her, Thy sins are forgiven. Those who were at table with him said within themselves, 'Who is this that even forgiveth sins?' But he said to the woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace.
VIII. Afterwards he travelled through cities and villages, proclaiming the joyful tidings of the reign of God, being attended by the twelve, and by certain women who had been delivered from evil spirits and distempers. Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven demons, Joanna wife of Chuza, Herod's steward, Susanna, and several others who assisted him with their property.
4. Now when a great multitude was assembled, and the people were flocking to him out of the cities, he spake by a parable. The sower went out to sow his grain: and in sowing, part fell by the way-side;, and was crushed under foot, or picked up by the birds; part fell upon a rock, and when it was sprung up, withered away for want of moisture; part also fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked it; and part fell into good soil, and sprang up, and yielded increase a hundred fold. Having said this, he cried, Whoso hath ears to hear, let him hear.
And his disciples asked him, saying, What meaneth this parable? He answered, it is your privilege to know the secrets of the reign of God, which to others are couched in parables; that, though they look, they may not perceive; though they hear, they may not understand.
Now this is the meaning of the parable. The seed is the word of God. By the way-side are meant those hearers out of whose hearts the devil coming taketh away the word, lest they should believe and be saved. By the rock are meant those who, when they hear, receive the word with joy, yet not having it rooted in them, are but temporary believers; for in the time of trial they fall off. By the ground encumbered with thorns, are meant those hearers who are entangled in the business, and pursuits, and pleasures of life, which stifle the word, so that it bringeth no fruit to maturity. But by the good soil are meant those, who, having heard the word, retain it in a good and honest heart, and persevere in bringing forth fruit.
16. A lamp is never lighted to be covered with a vessel, or put under a bed, but to be set on a stand, that they who enter may see the light. For there is no secret which shall not be discovered; nor any thing concealed which shall not be known and become public. Take heed, therefore, how ye hear; for to him who hath, more shall be given; but from him who hath not, shall be taken even that which he seemeth to have.
Then his mother and brothers came to speak with him, but could not get near him for the crowd. And it was told him by some persons, Thy mother and thy brothers are without, desiring to see thee. But he answering, said unto them, My mother and my brothers are those who hear the word of God, and obey it.
One day Jesus having gone into a bark with his disciples, said to them, Let us cross the lake. Accordingly they set sail. But while they sailed, he fell asleep, and there blew such a storm upon the lake as filled the bark with water, and endangered their lives. And they came to him, and awakened him, saying, Master, master, we perish. Then he arose and rebuked the wind, and the raging of the water: and they ceased, and there was a calm. And Jesus said to them, Where is your faith? But they said one to another with fear and admiration, Who is this that commandeth even the wind and the water, and they obey him? And they arrived at the country of the Gadarenes which is opposite to Galilee.
Being come ashore, a man of the city met him who had been long possessed by demons, and who wore no clothes, and had no habitation but the sepulchres. When he saw Jesus, he roared out, and threw himself at his feet, crying, What hast thou to do with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I beseech thee, do not torment me. (For he had ordered the unclean spirit to come out of the man; for it had frequently seized him, insomuch that, when he was chained and fettered, he broke his bons, and was driven by the fiend into the desert.) Then Jesus asked him, saying, What is thy name? He answered, Legion, because many demons had entered into him. And they entreated him that he would not command them to go into the abyss, but, as there was a numerous herd of swine feeding on the mountain, that he would permit them to enter into the swine. And her permitted them. Then the demons, having quitted the man, entered into the swine; and the herd rushed down a precipice into the lake, and were drowned. The herdsmen seeing this, fled, and spread the news through the city and villages. And the inhabitants flocked out to see what had happened. Being come to Jesus, and finding the man, of whom the demons were dispossessed, sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed, and in his right mind, they were afraid. But having been informed by the spectators, in what manner the demoniac had been delivered, all the people of the country of the Gadarenes entreated him to leave them; for they were struck with terror. Accordingly he re-entered the bark and returned. Now the man out of whom the demons were gone, entreated his permission to attend him. But Jesus dismissed him, saying, Return home and relate what great things God hath done for thee. Then he departed and published through all the city what great things Jesus had done for him. Jesus, at his return, was welcomed by the crowd, who were all waiting for him.
41. Meantime came a man named Jairus, a ruler of the synagogue, who, throwing himself at the feet of Jesus, besought him to come into his house: for he had an only daughter, about twelve years old, who was dying.
As Jesus went along, the people crowded him; and a woman, who had been twelve years afflicted with an issue of blood, and had consumed all her living upon physicians, none of whom could cure her, coming behind touched the tuft of his mantle; upon which her issue was stanched. Then Jesus said, Who touched me? When every body denied, Peter, and those with him, answered, Master, the multitude throng and press thee, and dost thou say, 'Who touched me?' Jesus replied, Somebody hath touched me; for I am sensible that my power was just now exerted. Then the woman perceiving that she was discovered, came trembling, and having thrown herself prostrate, declared to him, before all the people, why she had touched him, and how she had been immediately healed: and he said to her, Daugher, take courage, thy faith hath cured thee; go in peace.
49. While he was yet speaking, one came from the house of the director of the synagogue, who said, Thy daughter is dead; trouble not the Teacher. Jesus hearing this, said to Jairus, Fear not; only believe, and she shall be well. Being come to the house, he allowed nobody to enter with him, except Peter and John and James, and the maiden's father and mother. And all wept, and lamented her. But he said, Weep not; she is not dead, but asleep. And they derided him, knowing that she was dead. But he, having made them all retire, took her by the hand, and called, saying, Maiden, arise. And her spirit returned, and she arose immediately, and he commanded to give her food. And her parents were astonished, but he charged them not to mention to any body what had happened.
IX. Jesus having convened the twelve, gave them power and authority over all the demons, and to cure diseases, and commissioned them to proclaim the reign of God, and to heal the sick. And he said to them, provide nothing for your journey; nor staves, nor bag, nor bread, nor silver, nor two coats a-piece; and continue in whatever house ye are received into, until ye leave the place. And wheresoever they will not receive you, shake even the dust off your feet, as a protestation against them. They accordingly departed, and travelled through the villages, publishing the good tidings, and performing cures every where.
Now Herod the tetrarch having heard of all that Jesus had done, was perplexed, because some said, John is risen from the dead; some, Elijah hath appeared; and others, One of the ancient Prophets is risen again. And Herod said, John I beheaded: but who is this of whom I hear such things? And he was desirous to see him.
10. Now the Apostles being returned, reported to Jesus all that they had done: and he, taking them with him, retired privately to a desert belonging to the city of Bethsaida. When the multitude knew it, they followed him; and he receiving them, spoke to them concerning the reign of God, and healed those who had need of healing.
When the day began to decline, the twelve accosting him said, Dismiss the people, that they may go to the nearest towns and villages, and provide themselves in lodging and food; for we are here in a desert. He answered, Supply them yourselves with food. They replied, We have only five loaves and two fishes; unless we got and buy victuals for all this people. For they were about five thousand men. Then he said to his disciples, Make them lie down in parties, fifty in a party. And they did so, making them all lie down. Then he took the five loaves and the two fishes; and looking up to heaven, he blessed and brake them, and gave them to his disciples to set before the multitude. When all had eaten, and were satisfied, they took up twelve baskets full of fragments.
18. Afterwards, Jesus, having withdrawn from the multitude to pray apart with his disciples, asked them, saying, Who do people say that I am? They answered, John the Immerser; others say, Elijah; and others, that one of the ancient Prophets is risen again. He said to them, But who say ye that I am? Peter answered, The Messiah of God. Then having strictly charged them, he prohibited them from telling this to any body, adding, The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, and chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and rise again the third day.
Then he said to all the people, If any man will come under my guidance, let him renounce himself, and take his cross daily, and follow me. For whosoever would save his life, shall lose it; and whosoever will lose his life for my sake, shall save it. What will it profit a man to gain the whole world, with the forfeit or ruin of himself? For whosoever shall be ashamed of me and of my words, of him the Son of Man will be ashamed, when he shall come in his own glory, and in that of the Father, and of the holy messengers. I certify you, that there are some standing here, who shall not taste death until they see the reign of God.
About eight days after this discourse, he took with him Peter, and John, and James, and went up upon a mountain to pray. While he prayed, the appearance of his countenance was changed, and his raiment contracted a dazzling whiteness. And behold, two men of a glorious aspect, Moses and Elijah, conversed with him, and spoke of the departure which he was to accomplish at Jerusalem. Now Peter, and those that were with him, were overpowered with sleep; but when they awoke, they saw his glory, and the two men who stood with him. As these were removing from Jesus, Peter said to him, not knowing what he said, Master, it is good for us to stay here: let us, then, make three booths, one for thee, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. While he was speaking, a cloud came and covered them, and the disciples feared when those men entered the cloud: from the cloud a voice came, which said, This is my beloved Son. Haer him. While the voice was uttered, Jesus was found alone. And this they kept secret, telling nobody, in those days, aught of what they had seen.
37. The next day, when they were come down from the mountain, a great multitude met him. And one of the crowd cried out, saying, Rabbi, I beseech thee, take pity on my son; for he is my only child. And lo a spirit seizeth him, making him instantly cry out, and fall into convulsions, so that he foameth; and after he is much bruised, hardly leaveth him. And I besought thy disciples to expel the demon; but they were not able. Then Jesus answering said, O incredulous and perverse generation! how long shall I be with you, and suffer you? Bring thy son hither. And as he was coming, the demon dashed him down in convulsions. And Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, and having cured the child, delivered him to his father. And they were all amazed at the great power of God.
While all were admiring every thing which Jesus did, he said to his disciples, Mark diligently these words, 'The Son of Man is to be delivered into the hands of men.' But they understood not this language; it was veiled to them, that they might not apprehend it; and they were afraid to ask him concerning it.
46. And there arose a debate among them, which of them should be the greatest. But Jesus, who perceived the thought of their heart, took a child, and placing him near himself, said to them, Whosoever shall receive this child for my sake, receiveth me; and whosoever shall receive me, receiveth him who sent me: for he who is least amongst you all shall be greatest.
Then John said, Master, we saw one expelling demons in thy name, and we forbade him, because he consorteth not with us. Jesus answered, Forbid not such, for whoever is not against us, is for us.
Now as the time of his removal approached, he set out resolutely for Jerusalem, and sent messengers before, who went into a village of the Samaritans to make preparation for him. But they would not admit him, because they perceived he was going to Jerusalem. His disciples, James and John, observing this, said, Master, wilt thou that we call down fire from heaven to consume them, as Elijah did? But he turned and rebuked them, saying, Ye know not what spirit ye are of; for the Son of Man is come, not to destroy men, but to save them. Then they went to another village.
As they were on the way, one said to him, Master, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest. Jesus answered, The foxes have caverns, and the birds of the air have places of shelter, but the Son of Man hath not where to repose his head.
He said to another, Follow me. He answered, Sir, permit me first to go and bury my father. Jesus replied, Let the dead bury their dead, but go thou and publish the reign of God.
Another likewise said, I will follow thee, Sir, but first permit me to take leave of my family. Jesus answered, No man who, having put his hand to the plough, looketh behind him, is fit for the kingdom of God.
X. Afterwards the Lord appointed seventy others also, and sent them two and two before him, into every city and place whither he intended to go. And he said to them, The harvest is plentiful, but the reapers are few: pray therefore, the Lord of the harvest, that he would send labourers to reap it. Go then; behold I send you forth as lambs amongst wolves. Carry no purse, nor bag, nor shoes, and salute no person by the way. Whatever house ye enter, say, first, 'Peace be to this house.' And if a son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon him; if not, it shall return upon yourselves. But remain in the same house, eating and drinking such things as it affordeth; for the workman is worthy of his wages: go not from house to house. And whatever city ye enter, if they receive you, eat such things as are set before you; cure the sick, and say to them, 'The reign of God cometh upon you.' But whatever city ye enter, if they do not receive you, go out into the streets, and say, 'The very dirt of your streets, which cleaveth to us, we wipe off against you; know, however, that the reign of God cometh upon you.' I assure you, that the condition of Sodom shall be more tolerable on that day, than the condition of that city.
13. Wo unto thee Chorazin! wo unto thee Bethsaida! for if the miracles which have been performed in you, had been performed in Tyre and Sidon, they had repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. Wherefore the condition of Tyre and Sidon shall be more tolerable in the judgment than yours. And thou Capernaum, which hast been exalted to heaven, shall be thrown down to hades.*[App. No. XXI.] He that heareth you, heareth me; and he that rejecteth you, rejecteth me; and he that rejecteth me, rejecteth him who sent me.
And the seventy returned with joy, saying, Master, even the demons are subject unto us, through thy name. He said to them, I beheld Satan fall like lightning from heaven. Lo, I empower you to tread on serpents and scorpions, and all the might of the enemy; and nothing shall hurt you. Nevertheless, rejoice not in this, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rejoice that your names are enrolled in heaven. At that time Jesus was joyful in spirit, and said, I adore thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because, having hidden these things from sages and the learned, thou hast revealed them unto babes. Yes, Father, because such is thy pleasure. My Father hath imparted every thing to me; and none knoweth who the Son is, except the Father; nor who the Father is, except the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him. Then turning, he said apart to his disciples, Blessed are the eyes which see what ye see. For I assure you, that many Prophets and kings have wished to see the things which ye see, but have not seen them, and to hear to things which ye hear, but have not heard them.
25. Then a lawyer stood up, and said, trying him, Rabbi, what must I do to obtain eternal life? Jesus said unto him, What doth the law prescribe? What readest thou there? He answered, "Thou shalt love the Lord *[Jehovah.] thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind, and thy neighbour as thyself." Jesus replied, Thou hast answered right. Do this, and thou shalt live.
But he, desirous to appear blameless, said to Jesus, Who is my neighbour? Jesus said in return, A man of Jerusalem, travelling to Jericho, fell among robbers, who having stripped and wounded him, went away, leaving him half dead. A priest accidentally going that way, and seeing him, passed by on the farther side. Likewise a Levite on the road, when he came near the place and saw him, passed by on the farther side. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was, and when he saw him, he had compassion, and went up to him, and having poured wine and oil into his wounds, he bound them up. Then he set him on his own beast, brought him to an inn, and took care of him. On the morrow, when he was going away, he took out two denarii,*[About 25 cents.] and giving them to the host, said, 'Take care of this man, and whatever thou spendest more, when I return, I will repay thee.' Now which of these three, thinkest thou, was neighbour to him who fell among the robbers? The lawyer answered, he who took pity upon him. Then said Jesus, Go thou, and do in like manner.
And as they travelled, he went into a village,*[To wit, Bethany.] where a woman named Martha entertained him at her house. She had a sister called Mary, who sat at the feet of Jesus, listening to his discourse: But Martha, who was much cumbered about serving, came to him and said, Master, carest thou not that my sister leaveth me to serve alone? Bid her, therefore, assist me. Jesus answering, said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art anxious, and troublest thyself about many things. One thing only is necessary. And Mary hath chosen the good part which shall not be taken from her.
XI. It happened that Jesus was praying in a certain place; and when he had done, one of his disciples said to him, Master, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples. He answered, When ye pray, say,-- Our Father, who art in heaven, thy name be hallowed; thy reign come; thy will be done upon the earth, as it is in heaven; give us each day our daily bread; and forgive us our sins, for even we forgive all who offend us; and abandon us not to temptation, but preserve us from evil.
5. Moreover, he said unto them, Should one of you have a friend, and go to him at midnight, and say, 'Friend, lend me three loaves; for a friend of mine is come off his road to see me, and I have nothing to set before him;' and he from within should answer, 'Do not disturb me; the door is now locked; I and my children are in bed; I cannot rise to give thee;' I tell you, if the other continue knocking, though he will not rise and supply him, because he is his friend; he will, because of his importunity, get up, and give him as many as he wanteth. I likewise tell you, Ask, and ye shall obtain; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and the door shall be opened to you: for whoever asketh, obtaineth; whosoever seeketh, findeth; and to every one who knocketh, the door is opened. What father amongst you would give his son a stone, when he asketh bread; or when he asketh a fish, would, instead of a fish, give him a serpent; or when he asketh an egg, would give him a scorpion? If ye, therefore, bad as ye are, can give good things to your children; how much more will your Father give from heaven the Holy Spirit to them that ask him?
One time he was expelling a demon which caused dumbness, and when the demon was gone out, the dumb spake, and the people wondered. Some, however, said, he expelleth demons by Beelzebub the prince of the demons. Others, to try him, asked of him a sign in the sky. But he knowing their thoughts, said to them, by intestine broils any kingdom may be desolated, one family falling after another. Now, if there be intestine broils int he kingdom of Satan, how can that kingdom subsist? for ye say that I expel demons by Beelzebub. Moreover, if I by Beelzebub expel demons, by whom do your sons expel them? Wherefore they shall be your judges. But if I by the finger of God expel demons, the reign of God hath overtaken you. When the strong one armed guardeth his palace, his effects are secure. But, if he who is stronger, shall attack and overcome him, he will strip him of his armour on which he relied, and dispose of his spoils. He who is not for me, is against me; and he who gathereth not with me, scattereth.
24. The unclean spirit, when he is gone out of a man, wandereth over parched deserts, in search of a resting-place. But not finding any, he saith, 'I will return to my house whence I came.' Being come, he findeth it swept and furnished. Whereupon he goeth, and bringeth seven other spirits more wicked than himself; and having entered, they dwell there, and the last state of that man becometh worse than the first.
While he was saying these things, a woman raising her voice, cried to him from amid the crowd, Happy the womb which bore thee, and the breasts which suckled thee. Say, rather, replied he, Happy are they who hear the word of God and obey it.
When the people crowded together, he said, This is an evil generation. They demand a sign; but no sign shall be given them, save the sign of the Prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites, so shall the Son of Man be to this generation. The queen of the South*[In the Old Testament, Sheba.] country will arise in the judgment against the men of this generation, and cause them to be condemned; because she came from the extremities of the earth to hear the wise discourses of Solomon; and behold, here is something greater than Solomon. The men of Ninevah will stand up in the judgment against this generation, and cause it to be condemned; because they repented when warned by Jonah; and behold here is something greater than Jonah.
A lamp is lighted, not to be concealed, or put under a corn-measure, but on a stand, that they who enter may have light. The lamp of the body is the eye: when, therefore, thine eye is sound, the whole body is enlightened; but when thine eye is distempered, thy body is in darkness. Take heed, then, lest the light which is in thee be darkness. If thy whole body, therefore, be enlightened, having no part dark, the whole will be so enlightened, as when a lamp lighteth thee by its flame.
37. While he was speaking, a Pharisee asked him to dine with him. And he went and placed himself at table. But the Pharisee was surprised to observe, that he used no washing before dinner. Then the Lord said to him, As for you Pharisees, ye cleanse the outside of your cups and dishes, while ye yourselves are inwardly full of rapacity and malevolence. Unthinking men! did not he who made the outside, make the inside also? Only give in alms what ye have, and all things shall be clean unto you.
Wo unto you, pharisees, because ye pay the tithe of mint and rue, and every kind of herb, and neglect justice and the love of God. These things ye ought to have practised, and not to have omitted those.
Wo unto you, pharisees, because ye love the most conspicuous seat in synagogues, and salutations in public places.
Wo unto you, scribes and pharisees, hypocrites, because ye are like concealed graves, over which people walk without knowing it.
Here one of the lawyers interposing, said, By speaking thus, Rabbi, thou reproachest us also. he answered, Wo unto you, lawyers, also, because ye lade men with intolerable burdens, burdens which ye yourselves will not so much as touch with one of your fingers.
Wo unto you, because ye build the monuments of the Prophets, whom your fathers killed. Surely ye are both vouchers and accessories to the deeds of your fathers; for they killed them, and ye build their monuments.
Wherefore, thus saith the wisdom of God, 'I will send them Prophets and Apostles; some of them they will kill, others they will banish; insomuch that the blood of all the Prophets which hath been shed since the formation of the world, shall be required of this generation, from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zechariah, who fell between the altar and the house of God.' Yes, I assure you, all shall be required of this generation.
52. Wo unto you, lawyers, because ye have carried off the key of knowledge; ye have not entered yourselves, and those who were entering, ye hindered.
While he spake these things, the scribes and the pharisees began vehemently to press him with questions on many points; laying snares for him, in order to draw from his own mouth matter of accusation against him.
XII. Meantime, while the crowd in myriads flocked about him, insomuch that they trod one upon another, he said, addressing himself to his disciples, Above all things, beware of the leaven of the pharisees, which is hypocrisy. For there is nothing covered that shall not be detected; nothing secret that shall not be known. What ye have spoken in the dark, shall be reported in the light; and what ye have whispered in the closet, shall be proclaimed from the house-top. But I charge you, my friends, fear not them who kill the body, and after that can do no more: but I will show you whom ye ought to fear; fear him who, after he hath killed, hath power to cast into hell. I repeat it to you, fear him. Are not five sparrows sold for two pence?*[Two and a half cents.] Yet not one of them is forgotten of God: yea, the very hairs of your head are all numbered: fear not, therefore; ye are much more valuable than sparrows. Moreover, I say unto you, whoever shall acknowledge me before men, him the Son of Man will acknowledge before the messengers of God; but whoever denieth me before men, shall be disowned before the messengers of God. And whoso shall inveigh against the Son of Man, may obtain remission; but to him who detracteth from the Holy Spirit, there is no remission.*[App. No. XXII.] And when ye are brought before synagogues, and magistrates, and rulers, be not solicitous how or what ye shall answer, or what ye shall say: for the Holy Spirit will teach you in that moment what ought to be said.
Then one said to him out of the crowd, Rabbi, order my brother to divide the inheritance with me. He answered, Man, who constituted me your judge or arbiter? And he said to them, Be upon your guard against covetousness; for in whatever affluence a man be, his life dependeth not on his possessions.
He also used this example, A certain rich man hand lands which brought forth plentifully. And he reasoned thus within himself, What shall I do; for I have not where to store up my crop?--I will do this, added he, I will pull down my storehouses, and build larger, and there I will store up all my produce and my goods.*[App. No. XXIII.] And I will say to my soul, 'Soul, thou hast plenty of goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, enjoy thyself.' But God said to him, 'Thou fool, this very night thy soul is required of thee. Whose, then, shall t hose things be which thou hast provided?' so it fareth with him who amasses treasure for himself, but is not rich towards God.
22. Then he said to his disciples, For this reason I charge you, be not anxious about your life, what ye shall eat; nor about your body, what ye shall wear. Life is a greater gift than food, and the body than raiment. Consider the ravens; they neither sow nor reap; have neither cellar nor barn; but God feedeth them. How much more valuable are ye than the fowls? Besides, which of you can, by his anciety, prolong his life one hour? If, therefore, ye cannot thus effect even the smallest thing, why areye anxious about the rest? Consider the lilies. How do they grow? They toil not; they spin not; yet I affirm, that even Solomon, in all his glory, was not equally adorned with one of these. If, then, God so array the herbage, which to-day is in the field, and to-morrow is cast into the oven; how much more will he array you, O ye distrustful? Ask not ye, therefore, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; live not in anxious suspense. For all these things the Pagans seek; whereas your Father knoweth that ye need them. But seek ye the kingdom of God, and all these things shall be superadded to you. Fear not, my little flock, for it hath pleased your Father to give you the kingdom. Sell your goods and give alms; provide yourselves purses which wear not out; treasure inexhaustible in heaven, where no thieves approach, where nothing is spoiled by worms. For where your treasure is, your heart will likewise be.
Let your loins be girt, and your lamps burning; and yourselves like those who wait their master's return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may immediately let him in. Happy those servants whom their master, at his return, shall find watching. Verily I say unto you, that he will gird himself, and having placed them at table, will attend and serve them. And whether he come in the second watch, or in the third; if he find things thus, happy are those servants. Ye are certain, that if the master of the house knew at what hour the thief would come, he would watch, and not allow him to break into his house. Be ye then always prepared; because the Son of Man will come at an hour when ye are not expecting him.
41. Then Peer said to him, Master, is this comparison directed to us alone, or to all present? The Lord said, Who now is the discreet and faithful steward, whom the master will set over his household, to dispense regularly the allowance of corn? Happy that servant, if his master, at his arrival, shall find him so employed. I tell you truly, he will entrust him with the management of all his estate. But as to the servant who shall say within himself, 'My master delayeth his return,' and shall beat the men-servants and the maids, and shall feast and carouse, and be drunken; the master of that servant will come on a day when he is not expecting him, and at an hour he is not apprized of, and having discarded him, will assign him his portion with the faithless. And that servant who knew his master's will, yet did not make himself ready, nor execute his orders, shall receive many stripes; whereas he who knew it not, but did things deserving chastisement, shall recevie few; for much will be required of every one to whom much is given; and the more a man is entrusted with, the more will be exacted from him.
I came to throw fire upon the earth; and what would I, but that it were kindled? I have an immersion to undergo; and how am I pained till it be accomplished? Do you imagine that I am come to give peace to the earth? I tell you, No; but division. For hereafter five in one family will be divided; three against two, and two against three; father against son, an son against father; mother against daughter, and daughter against mother; mother-in-law against daughter-in-law, and daughter-in-law against mother-in-law.
He said also to the people, When ye see a cloud rising in the west, ye say, 'It will rain immediately,' and so it happened: and when the south wind bloweth, ye say, 'It will be hot,' and it happeneth accordingly. Hypocrites, ye can judge of what appeareth in the sky, and on the earth; how is it that ye cannot judge of the present time?
When thou goest with thy creditor to the magistrate, endeavor on the road to satisfy him, lest he drag thee before the judge, and the judge consign thee to the sergeant, and the sergeant commit thee to prison: I assure thee, thou wilt not be released, until thou hast paid the last mite.
XIII. There were then present some who informed Jesus of the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with that of their sacrifices. Jesus answering, said unto them, Think ye that these Galileans were the greatest sinners in all Galilee, because they suffered such usage? I tell you, 'No; but unless ye reform, ye shall all likewise perish:' of those eighteen whom the tower of Siloam fell upon, and slew; think ye that they were the greatest profligates in all Jerusalem? I tell you, No: but unless ye reform, ye also shall all perish.
6. He also spake this parable. A man had a fig-tree planted in his vineyard, and came seeking fruit on it, but found none. Then he said to the vine-dresser, 'This is the third year that I have come seeking fruit on this fig-tree, without finding any. Cut it down, why should it cumber the ground?' He answered, 'Sir, let it alone one year longer, until I dig about it and manure it; perhaps it will bear fruit: if not, thou mayest afterwards cut it down.'
One Sabbath, as he was teaching in the synagogue, a woman was present who had for eighteen years had a spirit of infirmity, whereby she was so bowed down, that she could not so much as look up. Jesus, perceiving her, called her to him, and laying his hands on her, said, Woman, thou art delivered from thine infirmity. Immediately she stood upright, and glorified God. But the director of the synagogue, moved with indignation because Jesus had performed a cure on the Sabbath, said to the people, There are six days for working; come, therefore, on those days, and be healed, and not on the Sabbath-day. To which the Lord replied, Hypocrites, who is there amongst you, that doth not on the Sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the stall, and lead him away to watering? And must not this woman, a daugher of Abraham, whom Satan hath kept bound, lo, these eighteen years, be released from this bond on the Sabbath-day? On his saying this, all his opposers were ashamed; but the whole multitude was delighted with all the glorious actions performed by him.
18. He said, moreover, What doth the kingdom of God resemble? Whereunto shall I compare it? It resembleth a grain of mustard seed, which a man threw into his garden; and it grew and became a great tree, and the birds of the air took shelter in its branches.
Again he said, Whereunto shall I compare the kingdom of God? It resembleth leaven which a woman mingled in three measures of meal, until the whole was leavened.
And he took a journey to Jerusalem, teaching as he passed through cities and villages; and one asked him, Master, are there but few who shall be saved? He answered, Force your entrance through the strait gate; for many, I assure you, will request to be admitted, who shall not prevail. If once the master of the house shall have arisen and locked the door, and ye standing without and knocking, say, 'Master, master, open unto us,' he will answer, 'I know not whence ye are.' Then ye will say, 'we have eaten and drunk with thee, and thou hast taught in our streets.' But he will answer, 'I tell you, I know not whence ye are: remove hence, all ye workers of unrighteousness.' Then will ensure weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, received into the kingdom of God, and yourselves excluded: nay, people will come from the east, from the west, from the north, and from the south, and will place themselves at table in the kingdom of God. And behold they are last who shall be first, and they are first who shall be last.
The same day certain Pharisees came to him, and said, Get away; depart hence, for Herod intendeth to kill thee. He answered, Go tell that fox, To-day and to-morrow I expel demons and perform cures, and the third day my course will be completed. Nevertheless I must walk about to-day and to-morrow, and the day following; for it cannot be that a prophet should be cut off any where but at Jerusalem. O Jerusalem! Jerusalem! that killest the prophets, and stonest them whom God sendeth to thee; how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen gathereth her brood under her wings; but ye would not! Quickly shall your habitation be transformed into a desert;*["Your house will be deserted.'--GRIESBACH'S text.] for verily I say unto you, ye shall not again see me, until the time when ye shall say, 'Blessed is he who cometh in the name of the Lord.*[Jehovah.]'
XIV. It happened on a Sabbath, when he was gone to eat at the house of one of the rulers who was a Pharisee, that, while the Pharisees were observing him, a man who had a dropsy stood before him. Then Jesus, addressing himself to the lawyers and Pharisees, said, Is it lawful to cure on the Sabbath? They being silent, he took hold of the man, healed and dismissed him. Then resuming his discourse, he said to them, Who amongst you, if his ass or his ox fall into a pit on the Sabbath day, will not immediately pull him out? And to this they were not able to make him a reply.
7. Observing how eager the guests were to possess the higher places at table, he gave them this injunction, When thou art invited to a wedding, do not occupy the highest place at table, lest one more considerable than thou be bidden, and he who invited you both come and say to thee, Give place to this man, and thou shouldst then rise with confusion to take the lowest place. But, when thou art invited, go to the lowest place, that when he who bad thee cometh, he may say to thee, 'Friend, go up higher;' for that will do thee honour before the company. For whoever exalteth himself, shall be humbled; and whoever humbleth himself, shall be exalted.
He said also to him who had invited him, When thou givest a dinner or a supper, do not invite thy rich friends, brothers, cousins, or neighbours, lest they also invite thee in their turn, and thou be recompensed. But when thou givest an entertainment, invite the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind; and thou shalt be happy: for as they have not wherewith to requite thee, thou shalt be requited at the resurrection of the righteous.
One of the guests hearing this said to him, Happy he who shall feast in the reign of God. Jesus said to him, A certain man made a great supper and invited many. And at supper-time he sent his servants to tell those who had been bidden to come presently; for that all was ready. But they all, without exception, made excuses. One said, 'I have purchased a field, which I must go and see; I pray thee have me excused.' another said, 'I have bought five yoke of oxen, which I am going to prove; I pray thee have me excused.' A third said, 'I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot go.' The servant, being returned, related all to his master. Then the master of the house was angry, and said to his servants, 'Go forthwith into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor, the maimed, the lame, an the blind.' Afterwards the servant said, 'Sir, thy orders are executed, and still there is room.' The master answered, 'Go out into the highways, and along the hedges,and compel people to come, that my house my be filled: for I declare to you, that none of those who were invited shall taste of my supper.'
25. As great multitudes travelled along with him, he turned to them and said, If any man come to me and hate not his father and mother, and wife and children, and brothers and sisters; nay,and himself too, he cannot be my disciple. And whosoever doth not follow me carrying his cross, cannot be my disciple. For, which of you intending to build a ower, doth not first by himself compute the expense, to know whether he have wherewith to complete it; lest, having laid the foundation, an being unable to finish, he become the derision of all who see it, who will say; 'This man began to build, but was not able to finish.' Or what king going to engage another king with whom he is at war, doth not first consult by himself, whether he can, with ten thousand men, encounter him who cometh against him with twenty thousand; that, if he cannot, he may, while the other is at a distance, send an embassy to sue for peace. So then, whosoever he be of you, who doth not renounce all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple. Salt is good; but if the salt become insipid, wherewith shall it be seasoned? It is fit, neither for the land, nor for the dunghill, but is thrown away. Whoso hath ears to hear, let him hear.
XV. Now all the publicans and the sinners resorted to Jesus to hear him. But the Pharisees and the scribes murmured, saying, This man admitteth sinners, and eateth with them.
Then he addressed this similitude to them: What man amongst you, who hath a hundred sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the ninety-nine in the desert, to go after that which is lost, until he find it? And having found it, doth he not joyfully lay it on his shoulders, and, when he is come home, convene his friends and neighbours, saying to them, 'Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost?' Thus, I assure you, there is greater joy in heaven for one sinner who reformeth, than for ninety-nine righteous persons who need no reformation.
8. Or what woman, who hath ten drachmas,*[About one dollar and 25 cents.] if she lose one, doth not light a lamp, and sweept the house, and search carefully, until she find it? And having found it, doth she not assemble her female friends and neighbours, saying, 'Rejoice with me, for I have found the drachma which I had lost?' Such joy, I assure you, have the messengers of God,when any one sinner reformeth.
He said also, A certain man had two sons. And the younger of them said to his father, 'Father, give me my portion of the estate.' And he allotted to them their shares. Soon after, the younger son gathered all together, and travelled into a distant country, and there wasted his substance in riot. When all was spent, a great famine came upon the land, and he began to be in want. Then he applied to one of the inhabitants of the country, who sent him into his fields to keep swine. And he was fain to fill his belly with the husks*[App. No. XXIV.] on which the swine were feeding; for nobody gave him aught. At length, coming to himself, he said, 'How many hirelings hath my father, who have all more bread than sufficeth them, while I perish with hunger! I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven and thee, and am no longer worthy to be called thy son; 'make me as one of thy hirelings.' And he arose and went to his father. When he was yet afar off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and ran, and threw himself upon his neck, and kissed him. And the son said, 'Father, I have sinned against heaven and thee, and am no longer worthy to be called thy son.' But the father said to his servants, 'Bring hither the principal robe and put it on him, and put a ring on his finger, and shoes on his feet: bring also the fatted calf and kill it, and let us eat and be merry; for this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. So they began to be merry.
25. Now his elder son was in the field walking home. And as he drew near the house, he heard music and dancing. He, therefore, called one of the servants, and asked the reason of this. He answered, 'Thy brother is returned, and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him in health.' And he was angry, and would not go in; therefore his father came out and entreated him. He answering, said to his father, 'These many years I have served thee, without disobeying thy command in any thing; yet thou never gavest me a kid that I might entertain my friends; but no sooner did this thy son return, who hath squandered thy living on prostitutes, than thou killedst for him the fatted calf.' "Son,' replied the father, 'thou art always with me, and all that I have is thine: it was but reasonable that we should rejoice and be merry; because this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found.
XVI. He said likewise to his disciples, A certain rich man had a steward, who was accused to him of wasting his estate. Having, therefore, called him, he said, 'What is this that I hear of thee? Render an account of thy management, for thou shalt be steward no longer.' And the steward said within himself, 'What shall I do? My master taketh from me the stewardship; I cannot dig, and am ashamed to beg. I am resolved what to do, that when I am discarded, there may be some who will receive me into their houses.' Having therefore sent severally for all his master's debtors, he asked one, 'How much owest thou to my master?' He answered, 'A hundred baths*[A bath thought equal to seven and one-half English gallons.] of oil.' 'Take back thy bill,' said the steward, 'sit down directly, and write one for fifty.' Then he asked another, 'How much owest thou?" he answered, 'A hundred homers*[A homer thought equal to seventy-five and one-half gallons.] of wheat.' 'Take back thy bill,' said he, 'and write one for eighty.' The master commended the prudence of the unjust steward; for the children of this world are more prudent in conducting their affairs than the children of light. Therefore I say unto you, With the deceitful mammon procure to yourselves friends, who, after your discharge, may receive you into the eternal mansions.
Whoso is faithful in little, is faithful also in much: and whoso is unjust in little, is unjust also in much. If therefore ye have not been honest in the deceitful, who will intrust you with the true, riches? And if ye have been unfaithful managers for another, who will give you any thing to manage for yourselves? A servant cannot serve two masters; for either he will h ate one, and love the other, or at least will attend one, and neglect the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.*[Riches.]
14. When the Pharisees, who loved money, heard all these things, they ridiculed him. But he said unto them, As for you, ye make yourselves pass upon men for righteous, but God knoweth your hearts; for that which is admired by men, is abhorred of God.
Ye had the law and the Prophets until the coming of John, since whose time the kingdom of God is announced, and every occupant entereth it by force. But sooner shall heaven and earth perish, than one tittle of the law shall fail.
Whoever divorceth his wife, and taketh another, committeth adultery; and whoever marrieth the divorced woman, committeth adultery.
There was a certain rich man, that wore purple and fine linen, and feasted splendidly every day. There was also a poor man named Lazarus, covered with sores, that was laid at his gate; and was fain to feed on the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: yea, even the dogs came and licked his sores. It happened that the poor man died,and was conveyed by messengers to Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried. And in hades, being in torments, he looked up, and saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom, and cried, saying, 'Have pity on me father Abraham, and send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue, for I am tortured in this flame.' Abraham answered, 'Son, remember that thou, in thy life-time, receivedst good things, and Lazarus received evil things; but now he is in joy, and thou art in torments. Besides, there lieth a huge gulph betwixt us and you, so that they who would pass hence to you, cannot; neither can they pass to us who would come thence.' The other replied, 'I entreat thee, then, father, to send him to my father's house; for I have five brothers, that he may admonish them, lest they also come into this place of torment.' Abraham answered, 'They have Moses and the Prophets, let them hear them.' 'Nay,' said he, 'father Abraham, but if one went to them from the dead, they would reform.' Abraham replied, 'If they hear not Moses and the Prophets; neither will they be persuaded, though one should arise from the dead.'
XVII. Then Jesus said to his disciples, It is impossible to exclude snares entirely; but wo unto him who insnareth. It would be more eligible for him to have an upper millstone fastened to his neck, and to be cast into the sea, than to insnare any of these little ones.
3. Take heed to yourselves; if thy brother trespass against thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him; and if he trespass against thee seven times in a day, and seven times in a day return [to thee,] saying, 'I repent,' thou shat forgive him.
Then the Apostles said to the Lord, Increase our faith. He answered, If ye had faith, though it were but as a grain of mustard seed, ye might say to this sycamine, (sic), 'Be extirpated and planted in the sea,' and it would obey you.
Would any of you, who hath a servant plowing or feeding cattle, say to him, on his return from the field, 'Come immediately, and place thyself at table;' and not rather, 'Make ready my supper; gird thyself, and serve me, until I have eaten and drunken; afterwards thou mayest eat and drink?' Is he obliged to that servant for obeying his orders? I suppose not. In like manner say ye, when ye have done all that is commanded you, 'We thy servants have conferred no favour; we have done only what we were bound to do.'
Now, in travelling to Jerusalem, he passed through the confines of Samaria and Galilee, and being about to enter a certain village, there met him ten lepers, who stood at a distance, and cried out, Jesus, Master, take pity upon us. When he saw them, he said to them, Go, show yourselves to the priests. And as they went, they were cleansed. And one of them perceiving that he was healed, turned back, glorifying God aloud. Then throwing himself prostrate at the feet of Jesus, he returned him thanks; now this man was a Samaritan. Jesus said, Were not ten cleansed? Where then are the other nine? Have none returned glory to God, except this alien? And he said to him, Arise, go thy way; thy faith hath cured thee.
20. Being questioned by the Pharisees when the reign of God should commence, he answered, The reign of God is not ushered in with parade; nor shall people say, 'Lo, here!' or 'Lo, yonder!' for behold the reign of God is within you.
Then he said to his disciples, The time will come when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man, and shall not see it. But when they say to you, 'Lo, here,' or 'Lo, younder,' go not out to follow them. For as the lightning flasheth in an instant from one extremity of the sky to the other,s o will the appearance of the Son of Man be in his day. But first he must suffer much, and be rejected of this generation. And, as it happened in Noah's days, it will also happen in the days of the Son of Man. They ate, they drank, they married, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, when the deluge came and destroyed them all. In like manner, as it was in the days of Lot, they ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built; but on the day that Lot left Sodom, it rained fire and brimstone from heven, which destroyed them all; so will it also be on the day when the Son of Man shall appear. On that day let not him who shall be on the house-top, having his furniture in the house, come down to take it away. Let not him who shall be in the field, return home. Remember Lot's wife. Whosoever shall seek to save his life, shall lose it; and whosoever shall throw it away, shall preserve it. I tell you, there will be two men that night in one bed; one will be seized, and the other will escape. Two women will be grinding together; one will be seized, and the other will escape. Two men will be in the field; one will be seized, and the other will escape. Then they asked him, Where, Master? He answered, Where the body is, the eagles will be assembled.
XVIII. He also showed them, by a parable, that they ought to persist in prayer without growing weary. In a certain city, said he, there was a judge, who neither feared God, nor regarded man. And there was a widow in that city who came to him, saying, 'Do me justice on my adversary.' For some time he refused: but afterwards he argued thus with himself, 'Although I neither fear God, nor regard man; yet because this widow importuneth me, I will juge her cause, lest she come perpetually and plague me.' Mark, said the Lord, what the unjust judge determined. And will not God avenge his elect, who cry to him day and night? Will he linger in their cause? I assure you, he will suddenly avenge them. Nevertheless, when the Son of Man cometh, will he find this belief in the land?
9. Then addressing some who were conceited of themselves as being righteous, and despised others, he proposed this example: Two men went up to the temple to pray; one a Pharisee, the other a publican. The Pharisee standing by himself, prayed thus: 'O God, I thank thee that I am not as other men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. I fast twice a-week. I give tithes of all that I possess.' But the publican standing at a distance, and not daring so much as to life up his eyes to heaven, smote upon his breast, and cried, 'God be merciful to me a sinner.' I assure you, that this man returned home, more approved than the other:*[App. No. XXV.] for whoever exalteth himself, shall be humbled; but whoever humbleth himself, shall be exalted.
Then they presented babes to him, that he might touch them: the disciples observing it, rebuked [those who brought] them. But Jesus calling them to him, said, Permit the children to come unto me, and do not forbid them; for of such is the kingdom of God. Verily I say unto you, Whosoever will not receive the kingdom of God as a child, shall never enter it.
Then a certain ruler asked him, saying, Good teacher, what good shall I do to obtain eternal life? Jesus answered, Why callest thou me good? God alone is good. Thou knowest the commandments. Do not commit adultery; do not commit murder; do not steal; do not give a false testimony; honor (sic) thy father and thy mother. He replied, All these I have observed from my childhood. Hearing this, Jesus said to him, Yet in one thing thou art deficient: sell all that thou hast, and distribute to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: then come and follow me. When he heard this, he was exceedingly sorrowful, for he was very rich.
Jesus perceiving that he was very sorrowful, said, How difficult will it be for men of opulence to enter the kingdom of God! It is easier for a camel to pass through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God. The hearers said, Who, then can be saved? Jesus answered, Things impossible to men, are possible to God.
28. Then Peter said, Lo! we have forsaken all, and followed thee. Jesus answered, Verily I say unto you, that there is none who shall have forsaken his house, or parents, or brothers, or wife, or children, on account of the kingdom of God; who shall not receive manifold more in return in this world, and in the future, eternal life.
Then Jesus taking the twelve aside, said to them, We are now going to Jerusalem, where all that the prophets have written shall be accomplished on the Son of Man. For he shall be delivered to the Gentiles, and ridiculed and insulted and spitted on. And after scourging, they will kill him, and he shall rise again the third day. But they understood none of these things: this discourse was hidden from them; they did not comprehend its meaning.
When he came near Jericho, a blind man, who sat by the way-side begging, hearing the crowd pass by, inquired what was the matter. And being told that Jesus the Nazarene was passing by, he immediately cried, saying, Jesus, Son of David, have pity upon me. They who went before, charged him to be silent: but he cried still the louder, Son of David, have pity upon me. Jesus stopped, and commanded them to bring the man to him. And when he was nigh, he asked him, saying, What dost thou wish me to do for thee? He answered, Master, to give me my sight. And Jesus said to him, Receive thy sight; thy faith hath cured thee. Instantly he received his sight, and followed him, glorifying God; and all the people saw it, and praised God.
XIX. When Jesus had entered, and was passing through Jericho, behold a man named Zaccheus, a rich man, and chief of the publicans, endevoured to see what sort of person he was, but could not for the press, being of a low stature. Therefore running before, he climbed up into a sycamore to see him, having observed that he was going that way. When Jesus came to the place, he looked up, and seeing him said, Zaccheus, make haste and come down, for to-day I must abide at thy house. And he made haste, and came down, and received him joyfully. When the multitude perceived this, they said, murmuring, He is gone to be entertained by a sinner. But Zaccheus presenting himself before Jesus, said, Master, the half of my goods I will give to the poor; and if in aught I have wronged any man, I will restore fourfold. And Jesus said concerning him, To-day is salvation come to this house, inasmuch as he also is a son of Abraham. For the Son of Man is come to seek and recover that which is lost.
11. As the people were attentive, he added this parable, because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and they fancied the reign of God would immediately commence: A certain nobleman went abroad to procure for himself the royalty, and then return; and having called ten of his servants, and delivered to them ten pounds, he said, 'Improve these till I return.' Now his citizens hated him; and sending an embassy after him, protested, 'We will not have this man for our king.' When he returned, vested with royal power, he commanded those servants to be called to whom he had committed the money, that he might know what every one had gained. Then came the first, and said, 'My Lord, thy pound*[About 37 dollars and 50 cents.] hath gained ten pounds.' He answered, 'Well done, good servant, because thou hast been faithful in a very small matter, receive thou the government of ten cities.' And the second who came, said, 'My Lord, thy pound hath gained five pounds.' He answered, 'Be thou too governor of five cities.' Another came, saying, 'My Lord, here is thy pound, which I have kept laid up in a napkin; for I was afraid of thee, because thou art a hard master; thou exactest what thou didst not give, and reapest what thou didst not sow.' He answered, 'Out of thine own mouth, thou malignant servant, I will condemn thee. Didst thou know that I am a hard master, exacting what I did not give, and reaping what I did not sow? Why then didst not thou put my money into the bank, that at my return I might have received it with interest?" Then he said to his attendants, 'Take the pound from him, and give it to him who hath the ten pounds.' They answered, 'My Lord, he hath ten pounds.' [He replied,] 'I tell you, that to every one who hath, more shall be given; but from him who hath not, even that which he hath shall be taken. But as for those mine enemies, who would not have me for their king; bring them hither, and slay them in my presence.'
28. After this discourse Jesus walked foremost, travelling towards Jerusalem. When he approached Bethphage and Bethany, near the mountain called the Mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples, saying, Go to yonder village, wherein, as ye enter, ye will find a colt tied, on which no man ever rode; loose him and bring him. If any one ask why ye loose him, ye shall answer, 'Because the Master needeth him.' Accordingly they who received this order, want and found every thing as he had told them. As they were loosing the colt, the owners said to them, Why loose ye the colt? They answered, The Master needeth him. So they brought him to Jesus, and having thrown their mantles upon the colt, set Jesus thereon. As he went, the people spread their mantles in the way before him. When he was so near as the descent of the Mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to praise God in loud acclamations, for all the miracles which they had seen, saying, 'Blessed be the King who cometh in the name of the Lord! peace in heaven, and glory int he highest heaven!' Upon this, some Pharisees in the crowd said to him, Rabbi, rebuke thy disciples. He answered, I tell you that, if these were silent, the stones would cry out.
When he came near and beheld the city, he wept over it, saying, O that thou hadst considered, at least in this thy day, the things which concern thy peace! But now they are hidden from thine eyes: for the days are coming upon thee when thine enemies will surround thee with a rampart, and enclose thee, and shut thee up on every side; and will level thee with the ground, thee and thy children, and will not leave thee one stone upon another, because thou didst not consider the time when thou wast visited.
45. Afterwards he went into the temple, and drove out thence those who sold and those who bought therein, saying to them, It is written, "My house is a house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves."
And he taught daily in the temple, while the chief priests and scribes, and persons of principal note, sought his destruction, but could not devise how to effect it; for all the people heard him with the greatest attention.
XX. One of those days, as he was teaching the people in the temple, and publishing the good tidings, the chief priests and the scribes, with the elders, came upon him, saying, Tell us by what authority thou dost these things, or who is he that empowered thee? He answering, said unto them, I also have a question to put to you. Tell me then, Was the title which John had to immerse, from heaven or from men? But they reasoned thus with themselves, If we say, 'From heaven,' he will reply, 'Why then did ye not believe him?' And if we say, 'From men,' all the people will stone us; for they are persuaded that John was a prophet. They therefore answered, that they could not tell whence. Jesus replied, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things.
Then he spake to the people this parable: A man planted a vineyard, and farmed it out, and having travelled, continued long abroad. The season being come, he sent a servant to the husbandmen, to receive of the produce of the vineyard; but they beat him, and sent him back empty. Afterwards, he sent another servant, whom they, having beaten and used him shamefully, also sent away empty. He, afterwards, despatched a third to them. Him likewise they wounded and drove away. Then the proprietor of the vineyard said, 'What shall I do? I will send my beloved son; they will surely reverence him, when they see him.' But when the husbandmen saw him, they reasoned thus among themselves, 'This is the heir; come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be our own.' And having thrust him out of the vineyard, they killed him. What, therefore, will the proprietor of the vineyard do to them? He will come and destroy those husbandmen, and give the vineyard to others. And some of his hearers said, God forbid.
Jesus, looking on them, said, What then meaneth that expression of Scripture, "A stone which the builders rejected is made the head of the corner. Whosoever shall fall upon that stone, shall be bruised; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will crush him to pieces." At that time the chief priests and the scribes, knowing that he had spoken this parable against them, would have laid hands on him, but feared the people.
20. And they watched him, and set spies upon him, instructing them to personate conscientious men, and surprise him in his words, that they might consign him to the power and authority of the procurator. These accosted him with this question, Rabbi, we know that thou speakest and teachest uprightly, and that, without respect of persons, thou faithfully recommendest the way of God. Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Cesar or not? He perceiving their subtlety, answered, Why would ye inveigle me? Show me a denarius. Whose image and inscription hath it? They answered, Cesar's. He replied, Render, therefore, to Cesar that which is Cesar's, and to God that which is God's. Thus they could not surprise him in his discourses before the people; wherefore, admiring his answer, they kept silence.
Afterwards some of the Sadducees, who deny a future state, came to him with this question, Rabbi, Moses hath enjoined in his writings, that a man whose brother dieth childless outlived by his wife, shall marry the widow, and raise issue to his brother. Now there were seven brothers, the first of whom having taken a wife, died childless; the second married the widow, and also died childless; the third too married her, as did likewise the rest; and all the seven died leaving no children. Last of all the woman also died. To which of them, therefore, will she be wife at the resurrection; for she hath been married to all the seven? Jesus answering, said unto them, The people of this world marry and are given in marriage; but among them who shall be honoured to share in the resurrection and the other world, there will be neither marrying nor giving in marriage: For they cannot die any more; because, like the heavenly messengers, they are children of God, being children of the resurrection. But that the dead are raised, even Moses hath suggested, calling the Lord who appeared in the bush, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Now he is not a God of the dead, but of the living; for they are all, [though dead to us,] alive to him. Then some of the scribes said to him, Rabbi, thou hast spoken well. After that they did not venture to ask him any more questions.
41. And he said to them, Why is it affirmed that the Messiah must be a Son of David? Yet David himself says in the book of Psalms, "The Lord*[Jehovah.] said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand until I make thy foes thy footstool." As David thus calleth him his Lord, how can he be David's son?
Then, in the audience of all the people, he said to his disciples, Beware of the scribes who love to walk in robes, and affect salutations in public places, and the principal seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost places t feasts; who devour the families of widows, and make long prayers for a disguise. These shall suffer the severest punishment.
XXI. As Jesus was observing the rich casting their gifts into the treasury, he saw an indigent widow throw in two mites. And he said, I tell you truly, that this poor widow hath cast in more than any of them; for all these, out of their superfluous store, have thrown into the sacred chest: whereas she hath thrown in all the little she had to subsist upon.
5. Some having remarked that the temple was adorned with beautiful stones and presents, he said, The time will come when these things which ye behold, shall be so razed, that one stone will not be left upon another. Then they asked him, saying, Rabbi, when will these things be; and what will be the sign when they are about to be accomplished? He answered, Take care that ye be not seduced; for many will assume my character, saying, 'I am the person,' and the time approacheth; therefore do not follow them. But when ye shall hear of wars and insurrections, be not terrified; for these things must first happen, but the end will not immediately follow.
10. He added, Then will nation rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. And there shall be great earthquakes in sundry places, and famines, and pestilences; there shall be also frightful appearances and great prodigies in the sky. But, before all this, ye shall be apprehended and prosecuted, and consigned to synagogues; and imprisoned, and dragged before kings and governors, because of my name: and this will afford scope for your testimony. Be therefore resolved not to premeditate what defence ye shall make; for I will give you an utterance and wisdom which none of your adversaries shall be able to refute or resist. And ye shall be given up even by parents and brothers, and kinsmen, and friends; and some of you they will put to death. And, on my account, ye shall be hated universally. Yet not a hair of your head shall be lost. Save yourselves by your perseverance.
Now when ye shall see Jerusalem invested with armies, know that the desolation thereof is nigh. Then let those in Judea flee to the mountains; let those in the city make their escape, and let not those in the country enter the city: for these will be days of vengeance, wherein all the denunciations of Scripture shall be accomplished. But wo unto the women with child, and unto them who give suck in those days: for there shall be great distress in the land,and wrath upon this people. They shall fall by the sword; they shall be carried captive into all nations; and Jerusalem shall be trodden by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be over. And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth the anguish of desponding nations; and roarings in the seas and floods; men expiring with the fear and apprehension of those things which are coming upon the world;*[App. No. XXVI.] for the powers of heaven shall be shaken. Then they shall see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with great glory and power. Now when these things begin to be fulfilled, look up and lift up your heads, because your deliverance approacheth.
He proposed to them also this comparison: Consider the fig-tree, and the other trees. When ye observe them shooting forth, ye know of yourselves that the summer is nigh. Know ye in like manner, when ye shall see these events, that the reign of God is nigh. Verily I say unto you, that this generation shall not pass, until all be accomplished. Heaven and earth shall fail; but my words shall not fail. Take heed, therefore, to yourselves, lest your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting and drunkenness and worldly cares, and that day come upon you unawares: for, as a net, it shall enclose all the inhabitants of the earth. Be vigilant, therefore; praying, on every occasion, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these impending evils, and to stand before the Son of Man.
Thus Jesus taught in the temple by day,but retired at night to the mountain called the Mount of Olives. And every morning the people resorted early to the temple to hear him.
XXII. Now the feast of unleavened bread, called the passover, being near, the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people. Then Satan entered into Judas, surnamed Iscariot, who was of the number of the twelve. And he went and concerted with the chief priests and officers, how he might deliver Jesus into their hands. And they were glad, and agreed to give him a certain sum; which Judas having accepted, watched an opportunity to deliver him up without tumult.
7. Now the day of unleavened bread being come, on which the passover must be sacrificed, Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare for us the passover, that we may eat it. They asked him, Where wilt thou that we prepare it? He answered, When ye enter the city, ye will meet a man carrying a pitcher of water; follow him into the house which he shall enter, and say to the master of the house, The teacher asketh thee, 'Where is the guest-chamber, where I may eat the passover with my disciples?" And he will show you a large upper room furnished; make ready there. So they went, and having found every thing as he had told them, prepared the passover.
When the hour was come, he placed himself at table with the twelve Apostles, and said to them, Much have I longed to eat this passover with you before I suffer! for I declare to you, that I will never partake of another, until it be accomplished in the kingdom of God. Then taking a cup, he gave thanks, and said, Take this, and share it amongst you: for I assure you, that I will not again drink of the product of the vine, until the reign of God be come. Then he took bread, and, having given thanks, broke it, and gave it to them, saying, This is my body which is given for you. Do this in commemoration of me. He likewise gave the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is shed for you.
21. Mark, however, that the hand of him who betrayeth me, is on the table with mine. The Son of Man is going away, as hath been determined: nevertheless, wo unto that man by whom he is betrayed. Then they began to inquire among themselves, which of them it could be that would do this.
There had been also a contention among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest. And he said to them, The kings of the nations exercise dominion over them, and they who oppress them are styled benefactors. But with you it must be otherwise: nay, let the greatest amongst you be as the smallest, and him who governeth, as he who serveth. For, whether is greater; he who is at table, or he who serveth? Is not he that is at table? Yet I am amongst you as one who serveth. Ye are they who have continued with me in my trials. And I grant unto you to eat and to drink at my table in my kingdom (forasmuch as my Father hath granted me a kingdom,) and to sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
The Lord said also, Simon, Simon, Satan hath obtained permission to sift you [all] as wheat; but I have prayed for thee that thy faith fail not; do thou, therefore, when thou hast recovered thyself, confirm thy brethren. He answered, Master, I am ready to accompany thee both to prison and to death. Jesus replied, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow to-day, before thou have thrice denied that thou knowest me.
Then he said to them, When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, did ye want any thing? Nothing, answered they. But now, said he, let him that hath a purse take it, and likewise his scrip; and let him who hath no sword, sell his mantle and buy one; for I tell you that this Scripture, "He was ranked among malefactors," is now to be accomplished in me: for the things relating to me must [soon] be fulfilled. They said, Master, here are two swords. He replied, It is enough. Then he went out, and repaired, as he was wont, to the Mount of Olives, and his disciples followed him.
Being arrived there, he said to them, Pray that ye may not yield to temptation. Then being withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, he kneeled down and prayed, saying, Father, if thou wilt, take this cup away from me; nevertheless not my will, but thine be done. And there appeared to him a messenger from heaven strengthening him. And being in an agony of grief, he prayed the more fervently, and his sweat fell like clotted blood to the ground. Having arisen from prayer, and returned to his disciples, he found them sleeping, oppressed with grief, and said to them, Why do ye sleep? Arise and pray, lest the trial overcome you.
47. Before he had done speaking, he saw a multitude, and he who was called Judas, one of the twelve, walked before them, and came up to Jesus to kiss him. Jesus said to him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of Man with a kiss? Now those who were with him, foreseeing what would happen, said to him, Master, shall we strike with the sword? And one of them struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. Jesus said, Let this suffice; and touching his ear, he healed him. Then Jesus said to the chief priests, and the officers of the temple-guard, and the elders who were come to apprehend him, Do ye come with swords and clubs, as in pursuit of a robber? While I was daily with you in the temple, ye did not attempt to arrest me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.
54. Then they seized him, and led him away to the high priest's house. And Peter followed at a distance. When they had kindled a fire in the middle of the court, and were sitting round it, Peter sat down among them. And a maid-servant having observed him sitting by the fire, and viewed him attentively, said, This man also was with him. But he disowned him, saying, Woman, I know him not. A little while after, another seeing him, said, Thou also art one of them. Peer answered, Man, I am not. About an hour after, another averred the same thing, saying, This man was surely with him, for he is a Galilean. Peer answered, Man, I know nothing of this matter. And just as he spake the word, the cock crew. Then the Lord turning, looked upon Peter, and Peter called to mind the word which the Lord had said unto him, 'Before the cock crow, thou wilt disown me thrice.' And Peter went out and wept bitterly.
63. Meantime, they who had Jesus in charge, mocked and beat him; and having blindfolded him, struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, Divine who it is that smote thee. And many other abusive things they said against him.
As soon as it was day, the national senate, with the chief priests and scribes, were assembled, and having caused him to be brought into their council-chamber, said to him, If thou be the Messiah, tell us. He answered, If I tell you, ye will not believe: and if I put a question, ye will neither answer me, nor acquit me. Hereafter the Son of Man shall be seated at the right hand of Almighty God. They all replied, Thou art then the Son of God? He answered, Ye say the truth. Then they cried, What further need have we of evidence? We have heard enough ourselves from his own mouth.
XXIII. And the assembly broke up, and conducted Jesus to Pilate. And they accused him, saying, We found this man perverting the nation,and forbidding to give tribute to Cesar, calling himself Messiah the King. Then Pilate asking him, said, Thou art the King of the Jews? He answered, Thou sayest right. Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitude, I find nothing criminal in this man. But they became more vehement, adding, he raiseth sedition among the people, by the doctrine which he spreadeth through all Judea, from Galilee, where he began, to this place. When Pilate heard them mention Galilee, he asked whether the man were a Galilean. And finding that he belonged to Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also then at Jerusalem.
And Herod was very glad to see Jesus: it was what he had long desired; having heard much of him, and hoping to see him perform some miracle. He, therefore, asked him many questions, but Jesus returned him no answer. Yet the chief priests and the scribes who were present, accused him with eagerness. But Herod and his military train despised him: and having in derision arrayed him in a shining robe, remanded him to Pilate. On that day Pilate and Herod became friends; for before they had been at enmity.
13. Pilate having convened the chief priests, the magistrates, and the people, said to them, Ye have brought this man to me, as one who exciteth the people to revolt; yet having examined him in your presence, I have not found him guilty of any of those crimes whereof ye accuse him. Neither hath Herod; for I referred you to him. Be assured, then, that he hath done nothing to deserve death. I will therefore chastise him, and release him. For it was necessary that he should release one to them at the festival. Then all cried out together, Away with this man, and release to us Barabbas. Now Barabbas had been imprisoned for raising sedition in the city, and for murder. Pilate, willing to release Jesus, again expostulated. But they cried, saying, Crucify, crucify him. A third time he repeated, Why? what evil hath this man done? I do not find him guilty of any capital crime; I will therefore chastise him, and release him. But they persisted, demanding, with much clamour, that he might be crucified. At last their clamours, and those of the chief priests, prevailed: and Pilate pronounced sentence, that it should be as they desired. Accordingly he released to them a man who had been imprisoned for sedition and murder, whom they required, and gave up Jesus to their will.
As they led him away, they laid hold of one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming from the country, and laid the cross on him, that he might bear it after Jesus. And a great multitude followed him, amongst whom were many women who lamented and bewailed him. But Jesus turning to them, said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children: for the days are coming wherein they shall say, 'Happy the barren, the wombs which never bare, and the breasts which never gave suck:' then they shall cry to the mountains, 'Fall on us,' and to the hills, 'Cover us:' for if it fare thus with the green tree, how shall it fare with the dry? And two malefactors were also led with him to execution.
When they were come to the place called Calvary, they there nailed him to the cross, and the malefactors also, one at his right hand, the other at his left. And Jesus said, Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. And they parted his garments by lot. While the people stood gazing, even their rulers joined them in ridiculing him, and saying, This man saved others; let him save himself, if he be the Messiah, the elect of God. The soldiers likewise mocked him, coming and offering him vinegar, and saying, If thou be the King of the Jews, save thyself. There was also an inscription over his head, in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.
39. Now, one of the malefactors who suffered with him, reviled him, saying, If thou be the Messiah, save thyself and us. The other rebuking him, answered, hast thou no fear of God, thou who art undergoing the same punishment? And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds; but this man has done nothing amiss. And he said to Jesus, Remember me, Lord, when thou comest to thy kingdom. Jesus answered, Verily I say unto thee, To-day thou shalt be with me in paradise.*[App. No. XXI.]
And about the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land, which lasted till the ninth. The sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst. And Jesus said with a loud voice, Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit: and having thus said, expired. Then the centurion observing what had happened, gave glory to God, saying, Assuredly this was a righteous man. Nay, all the people who were present at this spectacle, and saw what passed, returned, beating their breasts. And all his acquaintance, and the women who had followed him from Galilee, standing at a distance, beheld these things.
50. Now from Arimathea, a city of Judea, there was a senator named Joseph, a good and just man, who had not concurred in the resolutions and proceedings of the rest, and who himself also expected the reign of God. This man went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. And having taken it down, he wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a tomb cut in stone, wherein no man had ever been deposited. Now that day was the preparation,*[Friday.] and the Sabbath*[Saturday.] approached. And the women who had accompanied Jesus from Galilee, followed Joseph, and observed the monument, and how the body was laid. When they returned, they provided spices and ointments, and then rested the Sabbath,[Saturday.] according to the commandment.
XXIV. But the first day of the week,*[Sunday.] they went by
day-break, with some others, to the tomb, carrying the spices which they had provided; and found the stone rolled away from the monument; and having entered, they found not the body of the Lord Jesus. While they were in perplexity on this account, behold two men stood by them, in robes of a dazzling brightness. The women being affrighted, and fixing their eyes on the ground, these said to them, Why seek ye the living among the dead? He is not here, but is risen; remember how he spake to you, before he left Galilee, saying, 'The Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinners, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.' Then they remembered his words.
9. On their return from the monument, they reported the whole matter to the eleven, and to all the other disciples. It was Mary the Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and other women with them, who told these things to the Apostles: but their account appeared to them as idle tales; they gave them no credit. Peter, however, arose, and ran to the monument; and stooping down, saw nothing there but the linen lying. And he went away, musing with astonishment on what had happened.
The same day, as two of the disciples were travelling to a village named Emmaus, sixty furlongs from Jerusalem, they conversed together about all these events. While they were conversing and reasoning, Jesus himself joined them, and went along with them. But their eyes were so affected, that they did not know him. And he said to them, What subjects are these about which ye confer together? and why are ye dejected/ And one of them, named Cleopas, answered, Art thou the only stranger*[App. No. XXVII.] in Jerusalem, who is unacquainted with the things which have happened there so lately? What things? said he. They answered, Concerning Jesus the Nazarene, who was a Prophet, powerful in word and deed, before God and all the people; how our chief priests and magistrates have delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him. As for us,we trusted that it had been he who should have redeemed Israel. Beside all this, to-day being the third day since these things happened, some women of our company have astonished us; for having gone early to the monument, and not found his body, they came and told us that they had seen a vision of heavenly messengers, who said that he is alive. Whereupon some of our men went to the monument, and found matters exactly as the women had related; but him they saw not.
25. Then he said to them, O thoughtless men, and backward to believe things which have been all predicted by the Prophets! Ought not the Messiah thus to suffer, and so to enter into his glory? Then beginning with Moses, and proceeding through all the Prophets, he explained to them all the passages relating to himself. When they came near the village, whither they were travelling, he seemed as intending to go farther. But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us; for it groweth late, and the day is far spent. And he sent in to abide with them. Then their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he disappeared. And they said one to another, Did not our hearts burn within us, while he talked with us on the road, and expounded to us the Scriptures?
Immediately they arose, and returned to Jerusalem, where they found the eleven, and the rest of their company, assembled, who said, The Master is actually risen, and hath appeared unto Simon. These also recounted what had happened on the road, and how he was discovered to them in breaking the loaf.
36. While they discoursed in this manner, Jesus stood in the mist of them, and said, Peace be unto you. But they were amazed and affrighted, imagining that they saw a spirit. And he said to them, Why are ye alarmed? And wherefore do suspicions arise in your hearts? Behold my hands and my feet; it is I myself; handle me and be convinced; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see me have. Saying this, he showed them his hands and his feet. While yet they believed not, for joy and amazement, he said to them, Have ye here any thing to eat? And they gave him a piece of broiled fish, and of a honey-comb, which he took and ate in their presence. And he said to them, This is what I told you while I remained with you, that all the things which are written concerning me, in the law of Moses, and the Prophets, and the Psalms, must be accomplished. then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures, and said to them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved the Messiah to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day; and that reformation, and the remission of sins should be proclaimed in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. Now ye are witnesses of these things; and behold I send you that which my Father hath promised; but continue ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be invested with power from above.
He then led them out as far as Bethany, and lifted up his hands and blessed them. And while he was blessing them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven. And having worshipped him, they returned to Jerusalem with great joy; and were constantly in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.