Written from Corinth, and sent to Rome, A. D. 57.

I. PAUL, a servant of Jesus Christ, a called apostle, separated to the gospel of God, which he promised before, by his prophes, in the holy scriptures, concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David, with respect to the flesh, but was declared to the be Son of God with power, with respect to the Spirit of Holiness, by his resurrection from the dead: even Jesus Christ our Lord. From whom we have received favour and apostolic mission,*[App. No. XLIX.] in order to the obedience of faith among all the Gentiles on account of his name; among whom are also ye, the called of Jesus Christ: to all who are in Rome, to the beloved of God, to the called, to the saints: favour be to you, and peace from God our father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. And first I thank my God through the Lord Jesus Christ for all of you, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world. For God is my witness, whom with my spirit I serve in the gospel of his Son, that continually I make mention of you, always in my prayers, requesting that by some means now at length, I may have a prosperous journey by the will of God, to come to you. For I greatly desire to see you, that I may impoart to you some spiritual gift, in order that ye may be established. And this is proposed that I may be comforted together with you, through the mutual faith, both of you and me. Now, brethren, I would not have you ignorant, that oftentiems I purposed to come to you, though I have been hindered hitherto, that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among the other Gentiles. I am a debtor, both to the Greeks and to the barbarians, both to the learned and to the ignorant. Therefore, I am willing according to my ability, to declare the glad tidings even to you who are in Rome. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, because it is the power of God for salvation, to every one who believeth, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. For the righteousness of God, by faith, is revealed in it, in order to faith: as it is written, "But the just by faith, shall live."

18. Besides, the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who confine the truth by unrighteousness. Because that which may be known of God is manifest among them, for God hath manifested it to them, (for his invivisble things, even his etenal power and Divinity,*[App. No. L.] since the creation of the world are clearly seen, when thought upon by the things that are made,) so that they are inexcusable. Because though they knew God, they did not glorify him as God, neither gave him thanks, but became foolish by their own reasonings, and their imprudent heart was darkened. Professing to be wise men, they became fools: for they changed the glory of the incorruptible God, into the likeness of an image of incorruptible man, and of birds, and of four-footed beasts, and of reptiles. Therefore also God through the lusts of their own hearts, delivered them over to uncleanness, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves. Who changed the truth concerning God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature, rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.

For this, God delivered them over to shameful passions; for even their femalrs changed the natural use into what is contrary to nature. In like manner also, the males, leaving the natural use of the female, burned with their lust towards one another, males with males working out that which is shameful, and receiving in themselves that recompense of their error which was fit. And as they did not approve of holding God with acknowledgment, God delivered them over to an undiscerning mind, to work those things which are not suitable: being filed with all injustice, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness, full of envy,murder, strife, cunning, bad disposition, whisperers, revilers, haters of God, insolent, proud, boasters, inventers of evil pleasures, disobedient to parents, impudent, covenant breakers, without natural affectivion, implacable, unmerciful.

32. Some who clearly understand*[App. No. LI.] the law of God, (that they who practise such things are worthy of death,) not only do these things, but even are well pleased with those who practise them. Wherefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art who judgest: for whilst thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; because thou who judgest practisest the same things. Besides, we know that the sentence of God is according to truth, upon them who commit such things. And dost thou think this, O man, who judgest those who pactise such things, and yet workest the same, that thou shalt escape the sentence of God? Or dost thou misconsruct the riches of his goodness, and forbrearance, and slowness to anger; not knowing that this goodness of God leadeth thee to a reformation? nevertheless, according to thy obdurate and impenitent heart, thou treasurest up to thyself wrath against a day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgment of God: who will render to every one according to his works. To them, verily, who by perseverance in well doing, seek glory, honour, and immortality,he will render eternal life: but to them who are contentious, and obey not the truth, but obey unrighteousness, anger and wrath shall be. [I say] affliction and great distress shall come upon eery soul of man who worketh evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Greek. But glory,honour, and peace shall be to every one who worketh good, first to the Jew, and also to the Greek. For there is no respect of persons with God. As many therefore as have sinned without law, shall also perish without [being judged by] law, and as many as have sinned under law, shall be judged by law, (for not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified. When therefore the Gentiles, who have not a law, do by nature*[App. No. LII.] the things of the law, these persons, though they have not a law, are a law to themselves: who show plainly the work of the law written on their hearts, their conscience bearing witness, and also their reasonings between one another, when they accuse or else excuse each other.) in the day, when God will judge the hidden things of men, by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel.

II. 17.--Behold, thou art surnamed a Jew, and restest in the law, and boastest in God: and knowest his will, and approvest the things that are excellent, being instructed by the law; and boastest that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light of them who are in darkness: an instructer of the foolish, a teacher of babes, having the image of knowledge and of truth in the law. Tou then who teachest another, teachest thou not thyself? Thou who proclaimest, do not steal; dost thou steal? Thou who commandest, do not commite adultery; dost thou commit adultery? Thou who abhorrest idols, dost thou rob temples? Thou who boastest inthe law, by the breaking of the law, dishonourest tou God? For, as it was written, the name of God is evil spoken of among the Gentiles, through you. Now circumcision indeed profiteth, if thou practise law; but if thou be a transgressor of law, thy circumcision hath become uncircumcision. And if the uncircumcision keep the precepts of the law, will not his uncircumcision be counted for circumcision? And will not the uncircumcision, which by nature fulfilleth the law, juge thee a transgressor of law, [though a Jew] by the literal circumcision? For he is not a Jew,*[One of God's people] who is one outwardly, neither is circumcision that which is outward in the flesh: But he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter, [of the law:] of this man the praise is not from men, but from God.

III. JEW.--What then is the pre-eminence of the Jew? and what the advantage of circumcision? APOSTLE.--Much in every respect: but chiefly indeed, because they were entrusted with the oracles of God. JEW.--But what if some have not believed? will not their unbelief destroy the faithfulness of God? APOSTLE.--By no means. But let God be true, though every man be a liar, as it is written, "That thou mayest be justified in thy threatenings, and mayest overcome when thou judgest." JEW.--But if our unrighteousness establish the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Is not God unrighteous, who infliecteth wrath? (I speak this after the manner of man.) APOSTLE.--By no means: otherwise how shall God judge the world? JEW.--For if the truth of God hath abounded to his glory through my lie, why still am I also judged as a sinner? APOSTLE.--And [why not add,] (as we are slanderously reported to practise, and as som affirm we order;) certainly, let us do evil that good may come? Of htese the condemnation is just. JEW.--Well then, do we excel [the Gentiles?] APOSTLE.--Not at all, for we have formerly proved both Jes and Gentiles to be all under sin. As it is written, "Surely there is none righteous; no, not one. There is none that understandeth; there is none that seeketh after God. They are all gone ou;of the way; they are together become unprofitable. There is none that doth good; there is not so much as one. Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps isunder their lips; their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness. Their feet are swift to shed blood. Destruction and misery lurk in thier paths; but the path of peace they have not known. There is no fear of God before their eyes." Now we know that whatever things the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and that all the world may be liable to punishment before God. Wherefore by works of law, there shall not flesh be jusitifed in his sight; because through the law is the knowledge of sin.

21. But now a righteousness of God without law, is discovered, being testified by the law and the prophets; even the righteousness of God through faith of Jesus Christ, unto all and upon all who believe; for there is no distinction: because all have sinned, and come short of the praise of God; being justified of free gift by his favour, through the redemption which is by Christ Jesus whom God hath set forth a propitiatory*[App. NO. LIII.] through faith in his blood, for a proof of his own righteousness in passing by the sins which were before committed, through the forbearance of God: fora proof also of his righteousness in the present time, in order that he may be just when justifying him who is of the faith of Jesus. Where then is boasting? it is excluded. By what law? of works? No: but by the law of faith. We conclude then, that by8 faith man is justified without works of law. Is he the God of the jews only? and not of the Gentiles also? yes, of the Gentiles also. Seeing there is one God, he will justify the circumcision by faith, and the uncircumcision through the faith. Do we then make law usless through the faith? By no means, for we establish law.

IV. But what do we say Abraham our father obtained by the flesh? for if Abraham were justified by works he might boast, but not before God. For what saith the scripture? "And Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness." Now to him who worketh, the reward is not counted as a favour, but as a debt. But to him who doth not work, but believeth on him who justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness [as a favour.] In like manner also, David describeth the blessedness of the man to whom God counteth righteousness without works: Saying, "Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not count sin." Cometh this blessedness then on the circumcision only, or on the uncircumcision also? for we affirm that faith was counted to Abraham for righteousness. How then was it counted? when he was in circumcision or in uncircumcision? not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. And he received the mark of circumcision, as a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had in uncircumcison; in order to his being the father of all who believe in uncircumcision, that righteousness might be counted even to them. And the father of the circumcison, that [righteousness might be counted] to those who are not of the circumcision only, but who also walk in the footsteps of the faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision.

13. Besides not through a righteousness of law, the promise was to Abraham, and to his seed, that he should the heir of a world, but through a righteousness of faith. For if they who are righteous by law are heirs, faith is rendered vain, and the promise is made of no effect. Farther the law worketh out wrath: but where law is not, there is no transgression. For this reason it is through faith, that it might be by favour, in order that the promise might be sure to all the seed; not to that only whichis by the law, but to that also which is by faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all, (as it is written, "Surely a father of many nations have I constituted thee") in the presence of him whom he believed, even of God, who maketh alive the dead, and calleth things which exist not as though they existed. He contrary to hope believed with hope that he should be the father of many nations, according to what was spoken, "So shall thy seed be."

19. And not being weak in faith, he did not consider his own body now dead, being about an hundred years old, neither the deadness of Sarah's womb. Therefore against the promise of God, he did not dispute through unbelief, but was strong in faith, giving glory to God. And was fully persuaded, that what was promised, he was able certainly to perform. Therefore also it was counted to him for righteousness. Now it was not written for his sake only, that it was so counted to him; but for ur sakes also, to whom it will be counted, even to those who believe on him who raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead; who was delivered to death for our offences, and was raised again for our justification. Wherefore, being justified by faith, we have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ:--Through whom we have had introduction also by faith into this favour in which we stand, and boast in hope of the glory of God; and not only so, but we even boast of afflictions, knowing that affliction worketh out patience; and patience, approbation; and approbation, hope.--And this hope maketh not ashamed, because the love of God is poured out into our hearts by the Holy Spirit, who is given to us. Besides, we being still weak, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. Now scarcely for a just man will one die; though for a good man one perhaps would even dare to die. But his own love towards us God commended, because we being still sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, being now justified by his blood we shall be saved from wrath through him. For if being enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son; much more being reconciled, we shall be saved from wrath through his life.--And not only so, but we even boast in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ: by whom we have now received the reconciliation. For this reason, as by one man sin entered into the world, and by sin death, and so death passed through to all men, because all have sinned. For until the law sin was counted in the world: but sin is not counted when there is no law.*[App. No. LIV.] Nevertheless, death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them who had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the type of him who was to come. However not as the fall, so also is the gracious gift. For if by the fall of the one man, the many died; much more the favour of God,and the gift by favour, which is of the one man Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto the many. Also,n ot as the senence through the one who sinned, is the free gift: for verily the sentence was for one offence to condemnation; but the gracious gift is of many offences to righteousness. Besides if by the fall of the one man, death hath reigned through that one man; much more they who receive the overflowing of favour, and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ. Well then, as through one offence [sentence came] upon all men to condemnation: even so, through one righteousness [sentence came] upon all men to justification of life. And as through the disobedience of one man, the many were constituted sinners; even so through the obedience of one man, the many shall be constituted righteous. But law privily entered, so that the offence hath abounded. However, where sin hath abounded, favour hath superabounded. That as sin hath reigned by death, so also favour might reign through righteousness unto eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

VI. What then shall we say? let us continue to sin, that favour may abound?

By no means: we who have died by sin, how shall we still live by it? Are ye ignorant, that so many of us as have been immersed into Christ Jesus, have been immersed into his death? Besides, we have been buried together with him by immersion into this death, that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also shall walk in a new life. For seeing we have been planted together in the likenes of his death, certainly we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection. Ye know this that our old man was crucified together with him, that the body of sin might be rendered inactive, in order that we may not any longer as slaves serve sin. For he who is dead is freed from sin. Since then we have died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live together with him. Knowing that Christ being raised from the dead, dieth no more: death no more lordeth it over him. For he who died, died by sin once: but he who liveth, liveth by God; so then conclude ye yourselves to be dead verily by sin; but alive by God, through Christ Jesus our Lord. Wherefore let not sin reign in your mortal body, so as to obey it by the lusts of the body. Neither present ye to sin your members as instruments of unrighteousness; but present yourselves to God as alive from the dead, and your members to God as instruments of righteousness. Besides sin shall not lord it over you; for ye are not under law, but under favour. What then do we say? we will sin, because we are not under law, but under favour? by no means. Do ye not know, that to whomsoever ye present yourselves slaves, in order to obedience, ye are his slaves whom ye obey, whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness? But thanks be to God, that although ye were the slaves of sin, yet ye have obeyed from the heart the mould of doctrine into which ye were delivered. And being made free from sin, ye have become the slaves of righteousness. I speak after the manner of men, on account of the infirmity of your flesh: wherefore as ye have presented your members servile instrumetns to uncleanness and to iniquity, to work iniquity; so now present your members servile instruments to righteousness, to work holiness. For when ye were slaves of sin, ye were free men as to righteousness. And what fruit had ye then from those things of which ye are now ashamed? for the reward of these things is death. But now being set free from sin, and having become servants of God, ye have your fruit unto holiness, and the reward, everlasting life. For the wages of sin is death; bu the gracious gift of God is everlasting life, through Christ Jesus our Lord.

VII. Know ye not, brethren, (for I speak to them who know law,) that the law hath dominion over a man, only so long as he liveth? For a woman who hath a husband, is bound by law to her husband while he liveth; but if her husband die, she is loosed from the law of the husband. So then, she shall be called an adulteress, if, while her husband liveth, she be married to another husband; but if the husband die, she is freed from that law; so that she is no adulteress, though married to another husband. Wherefore, my brethren, ye also have been put to death by the law, int he body of Christ, in order that ye may be married to another, even to him who is raised from the dead, that we should bring forth fruit to God. For when we were in the flesh the sinful passions which we had under the law, wrought effectually in our members, to bring forth fruit unto death. But now we are loosed from the law, having died in that by which we were tied; so that we ought to serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter.

7. What then do we say, that the law is sin?

By no means. Nay, I had not known sin, unless through law. For even strong desire I had not known to be sin, unless the law had said, "Thou shalt not covet." But I say that sin taking opportunity under the commandment, wrought effectually in me all strong desire, for without law sin is dead. Therefore I was alive without law formerly: but when the commandment came, sin lived again, and I died. And so the commandment [which was intended] for life, the same was found by me [to end] in death.*{App. No. LV.] For sin taking opportunity under the commandment, deceived me, and through it slew me. Wherefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.

JEW.--The good law, then, to me hath become death?

APOSTLE.--By no means. But sin hath become death, that sin might appear working out death to me, through the good law; that is, that sin might become a most exceeding sinner through the commandment. Besides, we know that the law is spiritual; but I am carnal, being sold under sin. For what I thoroughly work, I do not approve; for I practise not that which I incline, but what I hate that I do. And if I do that which I incline not, I assent to the law that it is good. Now therefore, it is no more I who work it out, but sin dwelling in me. For I know that good dwelleth not in me, that is in my flesh. Indeed to incline lies near me; but to work out what is excellent, I do not find near me. Therefore I do not the good which I incline: but the evil which I do not incline, that I practise. Now, if I do that which I do not incline, it is no more I who work it out, but sin dwelling in me. Well then, I find, this law to me inclinging to do what is excellent, that evil lies near me. For I am pleased with the law of God, according to the inward man. But I see another law in my members warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin, which is in my members. O wretched man that I am, who will deliver me from the body of this death! I thank God, who delivers me through Jesus Christ our Lord. Do I myself then as a slave serve with the mind of the law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin? [By no means.*[App. No. LVI.]] There is then no condemnation now to those in Christ Jesus, who walk not according to the flesh, but according to the spirit. For the law of the Spirit of life, by Christ Jesus, hath freed me from the law of sin and of death. For God sending his own Son in the liekness of sinful flesh, and of a sin-offering, hath condemned sin in the flesh, (the thing impossible to the law, because it was weak through the flesh.) Taht the righteousness of the law may be fulfilled by us who walk not according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. Now they who live according to the flesh, mind the things of the flesh, and they who live according to the Spirit, the things of the spirit. But the minding of the flesh is death, and the minding of the Spirit is life and peace: because the mniding of the flesh is enmity against God: for to the law of God it is not subject, neither indeed can be. Wherefore they who are in the flesh cannot please God. Now ye are not in the flesh, but in the spirit, because the Spirit of God dwells in you.*[App. No. LVII.] But, if any one have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his. And if Christ be in you, the body, verily, is dead with respect to sin, but the spirit is life with respect to righteousness. For, if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he who raised up Christ from the dead, will make even your mortal bodies alive, through his Spirit who dwelleth in you. Well then, brethren, we are not debtors to the flesh, to live according to the flesh. Wherefore if ye live according to the flesh, ye shall die; but if through the spirit ye put to death the deeds of the body, ye shall live. Because as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are the sons of God. For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the spirit of adoption, by which we cry, Abba, Father. Also, the Spirit itself beareth witness together with our spirit that we are children of God. And if children, then heirs; heirs, verily of God, and joint heirs with Christ: if we jointly suffer, that also we may be jointly glorified.

18. However, I reckon that the sufferings of the present time, are not worthy to be compared with the glory which is about to be revealed in us. For the earnest desire of the creature, looketh for the revelation of the sons of God. For the creature was subjected to vanity, (not willing it, but by him who hath subjected it,) in hope, that even the creature itself shall be liberated from the bondage of corruption, into the freedom of the glory of the children of God. Besides, we know that every creature groaneth together, and travaileth in pain together until now. And not only they, but ourselves also, who have the first fruit of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoptin, namely the redemption of our body. For we are saved in hope: now hope attained is not hope:*[App. No. LVIII.] for what a man enjoyeth, how also can he hope for it? But, if we hope for what we do not enjoy, we wait with patience for it. And likewise, even the Spirit helpeth our infirmities: For what we should pray for as we ought, we do not know; but the Spirit himself intercedeth for us by inarticulate groanings. And he who searcheth the hearts, knoweth what the mind of the Spirit is, that to God he intercedeth for the saints. Besides we know that all things work together for good to them who love God, to them who are called according to his purpose. For whom he foreknew, he also predestinated to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the first born among many brethren. Moreover, whom he predestinated, them he also called; and whom he called, them he also justified; and whom he justified, them he also glorified. What shall we say then to these things? Since God is for us, who can be against us? He certainly who spared not his proper Son, but delivered him up for us all, how will he not with him also, graciously give us all things? Who will bring an also, graciously give us all things? Who will bring an accusation against the elect of God? It is God who justifieth them. Who is he who condemneth them? It is Christ who died, or rather who hath risen, who also is at the right hand of God, and who maketh intercession for us. Who will separate us from the love of Christ?*[App. No. LIX.] Will affliction, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? As it is written, "Truly for thy sake we are put to death all the day long: we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter." Nay, in all these things we do more than overcome, through him who hath loved us. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor messengers, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, will be able to separate us from the love of God which is through Christ Jesus our Lord.

IX. I speak the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience bearing me witness in the Holy Spirit, that I have great grief and unceasing anguish in my heart, for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh;*[App. No. LIX.] (for I myself [like them] was wishing to be separated from Christ,) who are Israelites, whose are the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the worship, and the promises; whose are the fathers, and from whom the Christ descended according to the flesh, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

6. Now it is not possible that the promise of God hath fallen; for all who are of Israel, these are not Israel. Neither because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children, but "in Isaac shall thy seed be called;" that is the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted for seed. Now the word of promise was this, "According to this time I will come, and Sarah shall have a son." And not only [was there that limitation,] but Rebecca also having conceived twins by one, even Isaac our father, they verily not being yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God might stand by an election, not on account of works, but of him who calleth, it was said to her, "The elder shall serve the younger;" as it is written, "Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have slighted." *[App. No. LX.]

JEW.--What shall we say then? Is not injustice with God?

APOSTLE.--By no means. For he saith to Moses, "I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion." So then it is not of him who willeth, nor of him who runneth, but of God who sheweth mercy. Besides the scripture saith to Pharaoh, "Even for this same purpose I have raised thee up, that I might show in thee my power, and that my name might be published through all the earth." Well then, he hath mercy on whom he will, and whom he will he hardeneth.

But thou wilt say to me, Why doth he still find fault? for who hath resisted his will?

20. Nay, but O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him who formed it, Why hast thou made me thus? Hath not the potter a just power over the clay to make of the same lump, one vessel to honour, and another to dishonour? Yet if God, willing to show his wrath, and make known his power, hath carried with much long suffering the vessels of wrath, fitted for destruction. And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had before prepared for glory. Even us whom he hath called, not only among the Jews, but also among the Gentiles. Even as he saith by Hosea, "I will call that my people, which was not my people, and her beloved, who was not beloved." "And it shall come to pass , in the place where it was said to them, Ye are not my people, there they shall be called Sons of the living God." Besides, Isaiah crieth concerning Israel, "Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant shall be saved. For finishing and cutting short the work in righteousness, certainly the Lord will make it a speedy work upon the earth." And as Isaiah hath said before, "Unless the Lord of hosts had left us a seed, we should have become as Sodom, and been made like to Gomorrah."

JEW.--What then do we say?

APOSTLE.--That the Gentiles who did not pursue righteousness, have laid hold on righteousness, a righteousness, however, which is of faith. But Israel who pursued the law of righteousness, hath not attained to the law of righteousness.

JEW.--For what reason?

APOSTLE.--Because not by faith, but verily by works of law they pursued it; for they stumbled at the stone of stumbling. As it is written, "Behold I place in Sion a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence; yet whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed."

X. Brethren, indeed my heart's desire and prayer, which is to God for Israel, is, that they may be saved. For I commend*[App. No. LXI.] them that they have a great zeal, but not according to knowledge. Wherefore, being ignorant of the righteousness of God, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, they have not submitted to the righteousness of God: Although Chirst is the end of the law for righteousness to every one who believeth. For Moses describeth the righteousness which is by the law, that "The man who doth these things, shall live in them." But the righteousness by faith thus speaketh, Say not in thy heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? that is, to bring down Christ. Or who shall descend into the deep? that is, to bring again Christ from among the dead. But what does it say? The matter is nigh thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the matter of faith which we announce is nigh thee. That if thou wilt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and wilt believe with thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with the heart we believe unto righteousness, and with the mouth we confess unto salvation.

11. For the scripture saith, "Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed." Indeed there is no distinction either of Jew or of Greek: for the same Lord of all is rich towards all who call upon him. "For whosoever will call on the name of the Lord, shall be saved."

JEW.--But how shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a proclaimer? and how shall they proclaim unless they be sent? as it is written,*[App. No. LXI.] "How beautiful are the feet of them who bring the joyful message of peace, of them who bring the joyful news of good things!"

APOSTLE.--Nevertheless, all have not obeyed the good tidings; for Isaiah saith, "Lord, who believeth what he heareth us proclaim?"

JEW.--So then, belief cometh from hearing, and this hearing by the word of God.

APOSTLE.--But I ask, have they not heard? Yes, verily, "Their sound hath gone ou;to all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world."

JEW.--But I object; Israel hath not known.

APOSTLE.--First, Moses saith, "I will provoke you to jealousy by that which is no nation: by a foolish nation I will enrage you." Besides, Isaiah is very bold when he saith, "I am found by them who did not seek me: I am shown to them who did not ask for me." But concerning Israel he said, "All the day long have I stretched forth my hands to a disobedient and rebelling people."

XI. JEW.--I ask then, hath God cast off his people?

APOSTLE.--By no means. For even I am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God hath not cast off his people whom heretofore he acknowledged.*[App. No. LXII.] Know ye not what the scritprue saith to Elijah, when he complaineth to God against Israel, saying, "Lord, they have killed thy prophets, and have digged down they altars, and I am left alone, and they seek my life." But what saith the answer of God to him; "I have reserved to myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to the image of Baal." So then, even at this present time, there is a remnant according to an election by favour. And if by favour, it is no more of works, otherwise favour is no more favour: But if of works, it is no more favour, otherwise work is no more work.

What then?

The thing Israel earnestly seeketh, that he hath not obtained, but the election hath obtained it, and the rest are blinded. As it is written, "God hath given them a spirit of deep sleep, eyes not seeing, and ears not hearing, until this present day." And David saith, "Let their table be for a snare, and a trap, and a stumbling block, and a recompense to them. Let their eyes be darkened so as not to see, and bow down their back continually."

JEW.--I ask then, Have they stumbled so as to fall for ever?

APOSTLE.--By no means. But through their fall salvation is given to the Gentils, to excite them to emulation. Now, if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them, the riches of the Gentiles, how much more their fulness? Now I speak to you Gentiles; and inasmuch as I am the apostle to the Gentils, I do honour to my ministry, if by any means I may excite to emulation my nation and may save some of them. Becuase, if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what will the resumption of them be, but life from the dead? For, if the first fruit be holy, the lump is also holy; and if the root be holy, so are the branches. Now, if some of the branches were broken off, and thou who art a wild olive, art ingrafted instead of them, and art become a joint partaker of the root and fatness of the olice; boast not against the branches: for if thou boastest against them, thou bearest not the root, but the root thee.

Thou wilt say however, the branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.

20. APOSTLE.--True. By unbelief they were broken off, and thou by faith standest. Be not high minded, but fear. For if God spared not the natural branches, perhaps neither will he spare thee. Behold then the goodness and severity of God: towards them who fell, severity: but towards thee, goodness, if thou continue in his goodness, otherwise thou also shalt be cut off. And even they, when they abide not in unbelief, shall be grafted in: for God is able again to graft them in. For if thou weret cut off from the olive by nature wild, and contrary to nature weret grafted into the good olive, how much rather shal those who are the natural branches be grafted into their own olive? For, brethren, that ye may not be wise in your own conceits, I would not have you ignorant of this secret, that blindness in part hath happened to Israel, till the fulness of the Gentiles come in. And so all Israel shall be saved; as it is written, "The Deliverer shall come out of Zion, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob. For this is my covenant with them, when I shall take away their sins." With respect to the gospel indeed, they are enemies, on your account: but with respect to the election, they are beloved on account of the fathers. For the free gifts and the calling of God are without repentance. Besides, as ye also in times past have disobeyed God, yet now have obtained mercy through their disobedience; even so these also have now disobeyed through your mercy, so as through your mercy they also shall obtain mercy. For God hath shut up together all for disobedience, that he might have mercy upon all. O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and of the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor? Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed to him again? For from him, and by him, and to him, are all things: to him be the glory for ever. Amen.

XII. Wherefore, brethren, I beseech you by the tender mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your reasonable worship. And be not fashioned like to this world, but be changed by the renewing of your understanding, that ye may approve what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect will of God. Also by the favour which is given to me, I command every one that is among you, not to think more highly of himself than he ought to think; but think so as to behave wisely, according as to each God hath distributed his measure of faith. For, as in one body we have many members, but all the members have not the same office; so we, the many, are one body under Christ, and severally members of one another. Having then spiritual gifts, differing according to the favour which is given to us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the measure*[App. No. LXIII.] of faith; or ministry, let us be diligent in the ministry; or he who teacheth, in teaching; or he who exhorteth, in exhortation: he who distributeth, let him do it with simplicity; he who presideth, let him do it with care; he who showeth mercy, let him do it with cheerfulness. Let love be without hypocrisy: abhor evil, cleave to good. In brotherly love, be kindly disposed towards each other. In honour go before one another. In care for each other be not slothful. In spirit be fervent when serving the Lord. Rejoice in hope. Be patient in affliction. Continue instant in prayer. Communicate to the necessities of the saints. Follow hospitality to strangers. Bless them who perseute you: bless, and cuse not. Rejoice with them who rejoice, and weep with them who weep. Be of the same disposition towards one another. Do not care for high things: but associate with lowly men. Be not wise in your own conceits. Unto no one return evil for evil. Premeditate things comely in the sight of all men. What relates to you is, live in peace with all men, if possible. Beloved, do not avenge yourselves, but give place to the wrath [of God;] for it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, saith the Lord." Therefore, if thine enemy hunger, give him food; if he thirst, give him drink: for this doing, thou wilt heap coals of fire on his head. Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good. Let every soul be subject to the higher powers. For there is no power but from God; and the powers that be are placed under God. Whrefore, he who setteth himself in opposition to the power, resisteth the ordinance of God; and they who resist, shall procure punishment to themselves. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to evil. Wouldest thou then not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same. For the ruler is a servant of God for good to thee. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; because he does not bar the sword in vain. For he is a servant of God, a revenger to inflict wrath on him who worketh evil. Wherefore it is necessary for you to be subject, not only on account of wrath, but also on account of conscience. For this reason, therefore, pay ye taxes also to them, because they are public ministers of God, attending continually to this very thing. Render therefore to all their dues; to whom tax is due, tax; to whom custom, custom; to whom fear, fear; to whom honour, honour. Owe no man any thing, unless to love one another. For he who loveth another, hath fulfilled the law. For this, "Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet," and if there be any other commandment, it is summed up in this precept, namely, "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." Love worketh no evil to one's neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law. Also this I command, Know the season, that it is already the hour for us to awake out of sleep. For n ow the salvation is nearer us than when we believed. The night is far advanced, and they day is at hand. Let us therefore put off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light. Let us walk about decently as in the day, not in revellings and drunkenness, not in chamberings and lasciviousness, not in strife and envy. But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the lusts of the flesh.

XIV. Him who is weak in the faith recevie ye; but without regard to differences of opinions. One indeed believeth he may eat every thing; but he who is weak [in the faith,] eateth herbs only. Let not him who eateth, despise him who eateth not: and let not him who eateth not, condemn him who eateth; for God hath received him. Who art thou that condemnest another's household servant? By his own master he standeth or falleth: and he shall be made to stand, for God is able to make him stand. One indeed thinketh a day more holy than another; but another thinketh every day alike. Let every one be convinced inhis own mind. He who observeth the day, observeth it to the Lord: andhe who doth not observe the day, to the Lord he doth not observe it: he who eateth, eateth to the Lord, for he giveth God thanks: andhe who eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not, and giveth God thanks. For none of us liveth by himself, and none of us dieth by himself. But whether we live, we live by the Lord; and whether we die, we die by the Lord: whether we live therefore or die, we are the Lord's. For to this end Christ both died and rose, and liveth again, that he might rule over both the dead and the living. But thou, why dost thou condemn thy brother? and thou also, why dost thou despise thy brother? for we shall all be placed before the judgment seat of Christ. For it is written, "As i live saith the Lord, surely to me every knee shall bow, and every tongue shall confess to God." Well then, every one of us shall give an account concerning himself to God. Let us therefore no more judge one another; but judge ye this rather, not to lay an occasion of stumbling before a brother, or an occasion of falling. I know and am persuaded by the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing unclean of itself; yet to him who accounteth any thing to be unclean, to that man it is unclean. Wherefore if thy brother e hurt through thy meat, thou no longer walkest according to love. Do not destroy him with thy meat for whom Christ died. Let not then the good which belongeth to you be evil spoken of. For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. And he who by these things serveth Christ, is acceptable to God, and approved of men. Well then, let us pursue the things of peace, and the things of mutual edification. Do not for the sake of meat destroy the work of God. All meats indeed are clean, but that meat is bad to the man who eateth through a stumbling block. It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor to do any thing by which thy brother is made to stumble, or to fall, or is weakened. Thou hast faith: hold it fast with respect to thyself in the sight of God.*[App. No. LXIV.] Happy is he who doth not condemn himself by what he approveth. For he who discerneth a difference between meats, is condemned if he eat: because he eateht not from faith: for what is not from faith is sin. We then who are able men, ought to bear the weakness of the unable, and not to please ourselves only. Wherefore, let every one of us please his neighbour to his good, for the sake of edification. For even Christ pleased not himself: but as it is written, "The reproaches of them who reproached thee, have fallen on me." But whatever things were before written, were written for our instructin, that through the patience and consolation of the scriptures, we might have hope. Now may the God of patience and consolation grant you to have the same disposition towards one another, according to Jesus Christ: that unanimously, with one mouth, ye may glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Wherefore receive ye one another, even as Christ also hath received us, to the glory of God. Now I affirm, that Jesus Christ became a minister of the circumcision, on account of the truth of God, in order to confirm the promises made to the fathers; and that the Gentiles might praise God on account of mercy: as it is written, "For this cause I will glorify thee among the Gentiles, and sing to thy name." And again, Moses saith, "Rejoice ye Gentiles, with his people." And again, "Praise the Lord all ye Gentiles, and exceedingly praise him all ye people." And again, Isaiah saith, "The root of Jesse shall be and he who standeth up to rule the Gentiles shall be: in him the Gentiles shall hope." Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, in order that ye may abound in that hope, through the power of the Holy Spirit. However, my brethren, even I myself am persuaded concerning you, that yourselves also are full of goodness, being filled with all knowledge, able also to instruct one another. But I have written the more boldly to you, brethren, partly as calling things to your remembrance, through the favour which is given me of God. In order to my being a minister of Jesus Christ among the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God, that there might be an offering of the Gentiles, most acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Spirit. I have therefore boasting through Christ Jesus, with respect to things pertaining to God. But I will not dare to speak any thing of what Christ hath not wrought, but of what he hath wrought by me, in order to the obedience of the Gentiles in word and deed, by the power of signs and wonders, and by the power of the Spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and round about as far as Illyricum, I have fully declared the gospel of Christ. And it becamse me thus earnestly to declare the gospel, not where Christ was named, that I might not build on another's foundation. But as it is written, "They shall see to whom nothing hath been told concerning him, and they who have not heard, shall understand." For which reason also I have been oftentimes hindered from coming to you. But now having no more place int ehse parts, and having for many years a strong desire to come to you, whensoever I go towards Spain, I will come to you; for in my journey I hope to see y ou, and to be brought on my way thitherward by you, when I shall first in some measure be satisfied with your company. But now I go to Jerusalem, ministering to the saints, for Macedonia and Achaia have been please to make some contribution for the poor of the saints who are in Jerusalem. They have been pleased, verily, and their debtors they are: for if the Gentiles have partaken of their spiritual things, they ought certainly to minister to them in carnal things. Wherefore, having finished this affair, and having scaled to them this fruit, I will go from thence by you into Spain. And I know that when I come to you, I shall come with a fulness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ. Now I beseech you, brethren, by the Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that ye strive together with me by prayers for me to God: That I may be delivered from the disobedient in Judea; and that my service which I am performing to Jerusalem, may be acceptable to the saints: that in joy I may come to you through the will of God, and may with you be refreshed. Now, may the God of peace be with you all. amen.

XVI. I recommend to you Phoebe our sister, who is a deaconess*[App. No. LXV.] of the congregation which is in Cenchrea, that ye may receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and assist her in whatever business she may have need of you: for indeed she hath been a helper of many, and of myself also. Salute Priscilla and Aquila, my fellow-labourers in Christ Jesus. These persons, for my life laid down their own neck; to whom not I only give thanks, but even all the congregations of the Gentiles. Likewise salute the congregation which is in their house. Salute Epaenetus my beloved, who is the first fruit of Achaia in Christ Jesus. Salute Mary who laboured much with us. Salute Andronicus and Iunias my kinsmen and my fellow-prisoners, who are of note among the apostles, and who were in Christ before me. Salute Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. Salute Urbanus our fellow labourer in in Christ, and Stachys my beloved. Salute Apelles the approved in Christ. Salute those who are of the family of Aristobulus. Salute Herodion my kinsman. Salute those of the family of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. Salute Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord. Salute the beloved Persis, who laboured much in the Lord. Salute Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, and her who is the mother both of him and of me. Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren with them. Salute Phylologus, and Julia, Nereus, and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them. Salute one another with a holy kiss. The congregations of Christ salute you. Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them who make separations and occasions of falling, contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them. For they who are such do not serve our Lord Jesus, but their own belly; and by good words, and blessings, deceive the hearts of the innocent. Now your obedience is reported to all men. I therefore rejoice on your account; nevertheless I wish you indeed to be wise with respect to good, and pure with respect to evil. And the God of peace will bruise Satan under your feet soon. The favour of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen. Timothy my fellow labourer, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you. I Tertius, who wrote this letter, salute you in the Lord. Caius mine host, and of the whole congregation, saluteth you. Erastus, the chamberlain*[The treasurer of the city.--Vulgate.] of the city, saluteth you, and Quartus your brother. The favour of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen. Now to him who is able to stablish you according to my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ according to the revelation of a secret, concealed in the times of the ages,*[App. No. LXVI.] (but is now made manifest, and by the commandment of the eternal God in the prophetic writings, is made known to all the Gentiles, in order to the obedience of faith.) To the wise God alone, through Jesus Christ, I say to him be the glory for ever. Amen.

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