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Alexander Campbell, ed.
The Millennial Harbinger, Vol. III, No. IX (1832)


{ Vol. III.  
      I saw another messenger flying through the midst of heaven, having everlasting good news to proclaim to the inhabitants of the earth, even to every nation and tribe, and tongue, and people--saying with a loud voice, Fear God and give glory to him, for the hour of his judgments is come: and worship him who made heaven, and earth, and sea, and the fountains of water.--JOHN.
      Great is the truth and mighty above things, and will prevail.

Symbols or similitudes occurring in the figurative and prophetic parts
of the Sacred Writings.

      THE sacred scriptures are their own best interpreters, both in literal and figurative language. The interpretation of the following symbols is drawn, for the most part, from the book itself. We have consulted the Eastern Oneirocritics, as handed down to us in the book of Achmetes, containing the acquisitions of the interpreters of the kings of India, Persia, and Egypt. These three great interpreters of dreams and similitudes--Syrbacham, interpreter to the king of India; Baram, interpreter to the king of Persia; and Tarphan, interpreter to Pharaoh, king of Egypt--interpret almost all the symbols found in the Bible, although they derived both the symbols and their interpretation from other sources. Grotius, Mede, and More, have shown that these interpreters understood the similitudes which occur in their works, very generally, in the acceptation in which they are received in the sacred scriptures. We have examined More's work very attentively, and most of the works found in Tower's Illustrations. These we use rather as confirmatory or corroborative of the meaning ascertained from the Jewish and Christian prophets and scribes.

      ANGEL, in symbolic language, denotes any agent or messenger which God employs in executing his will.

      AIR is frequently equivalent to heavens the symbol of government, and an emblem of the kingdom of Satan. He is called "the prince of the power of the air;" and wicked spirits are said to have their place of power in the air, Ephesians vi. 12. A vial poured upon the air denotes the destruction of all existing governments under the influence of Satan.

      ASCENSION INTO HEAVEN, symbol of the acquisition of political dignity and honor. "How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, Son of the Morning: for thou hast said in thy heart, I will ascend into heaven." "And the witnesses ascended up into heaven in a cloud," Rev. xi. 12. [433]

      BALANCE, emblem of Justice. Joined with symbols denoting the sale of corn, or fruits of the earth, it is the symbol of scarcity. Bread by weight is a curse. Lev. xxvi. 26.

      BEAST. Wild beast denotes a usurping, tyrannical power; a succession of men exercising a lawless, arbitrary power, whether civil or ecclesiastical. Beasts sometimes denote a kingdom or state. Thus, in Daniel, four wild beasts represent four empires under the same cruel and tyrannical idolatry--Chaldea and Assyria the first wild beast; Media and Persia the second wild beast; Macedon, Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt, the third wild beast; and the Roman empire the fourth wild beast. Paul compares a body politic to an animal, 1 Cor. 12, and therefore any polity may be compared to a man or any other animal; the character of the spirit of the polity will decide whether it be a wild or domestic animal, a natural or unnatural organization.

      BEHOLDING, the act of.--"Their enemies beheld them" To behold signifies to rejoice, or to be grieved according to the circumstances of the person affected.

      BINDING, the act of, denotes forbidding or restraining from acting. "To bind the dragon," is to restrain that cruel and tyrannical power represented by the dragon.

      BLACK, the color of, denotes affliction, disaster, and anguish; any thing sad, dismal, cruel, or unfortunate.

      BLASPHEMY, when a symbol denotes idolatry. Thus, in Isaiah, "You have burnt incense upon the mountains to idols, and blasphemed me upon the hills." Deut. xxxi. In the Hebrew it reads--"They will turn to other gods, and they will blaspheme me." Idolatry is blasphemy against God.

      BLOOD--War, carnage, slaughter. "To turn waters into blood," is to embroil nations in war. "If I pour out my fury upon it in blood, to cut off from it man and beast."

      BOOK, the sealing of--the concealing of its meaning. To seal a roll, or book, is to conceal its meaning.

      BOW AND ARROWS, when in the hand, are symbols of war and victory. "If a man dream, (say the Egyptians and Persians) that he holds in his hand bow and arrows, he shall victoriously insult over his enemies."

      BURNING, the act of, complete destruction. "To burn with fire," is utterly to destroy.

      BUYING, the act of. "No man might buy or sell," give or receive religious instruction, administer ordinances, traffic in the wares of the priesthood, partake of the honors and powers of the clergy.

      CANDLE--emblem of prosperity, success, joy. "His candle shall be put out," Job xviii. "O that I were as in months past, as in the days when God preserved me; when his candle shined upon my head" Job. xxix.

      CANDLESTICK, or lamp, is sometimes the symbol of government, but frequently of affording instruction, removing ignorance, and imparting cheerfulness and joy. Two candlesticks, and two olive trees, are applied to the two Witnesses, because of the light and comfort which these "two prophets" afforded those who wait on them. [434]

      CHARACTER, or mark; "mark on the forehead"--Open profession of allegiance to those whose name or character they bear. Both servants and soldiers, in ancient times, were marked on the forehead and hands.

      CITY, the Great City. The European part of the Western Roman empire, and the great body of the spurious christians who inhabit it, are called the Great City: for as the ten horns represent the ten powers into which the empire is divided, so the city is represented as consisting of ten streets. "The tenth part of the city" is particularized in Rev. xi. 13; and in verse 8 "the street of the great city" is also spoken of. A city is the symbol of a corporate body, under one and the same police. The analogy may be to Babylon, the great city of the Assyrian empire.

      CLOUD--an emblem of prosperity and glory. To ride on clouds, is to rule and conquer. When no storm accompanies, or no attribute is attached to it, a cloud is the emblem of majesty and glory. By Daniel it is said, "One like the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven"--to which our Lord adds, as explanatory of the symbol, "with power and great glory." Matth. xxiv 30.

      CROWN--emblem of dignity, power, and honor. The ten horns with ten crowns, denote so many kings reigning in dignity and honor over as many kingdoms or distinct provinces.

      DARKNESS, symbol of affliction. The kingdom of the beast was full of darkness--confusion and distress.

      DAY. In prophetic style, "I have given you a day for a year," is the rule; one revolution of the earth on its axis for a revolution in its orbit. "Twelve hundred and sixty days" are expressed by time, times, and half a time, or by "forty-two months." These periods are each equal to three years and an half.

      DEATH. As natural death is a ceasing to be as before, a change of state, or the destruction of the life of the animal, so it is the symbol of the destruction of any subject, according to the nature of it.--"Moab shall die with tumult:" not that each individual shall perish, but that Moab, the nation, shall change its condition for a worse one; shall pass into subjection and slavery.

      DESERT, or Wilderness, means Paganism; the wild, savage manners, and state of Paganism. As the idolatry of the Pagans was practised in groves, woods, and waste places, and the names of their demons had reference to fields and deserts, so desert became, among the Jews, the symbol of Paganism.

      DEW, and rain, are the symbols of heavenly blessings. The Oneirocritics say that "dew and rain are the symbols of all manner of good things" "The two witnesses have power to shut heaven, that it rain not"--They will restrain the blessings of heaven from falling upon those who reject their testimony.

      DRAGON, "the well known symbol of the old Roman government, in its Pagan persecuting state." The Egyptians, Persians, and Indians regard the dragon as the established emblem of a monarch. It is sometimes used for monarchical despotism in general. The whole [435] principality of the Old Serpent may be denoted by it; but in the Old Testament it is appropriated to the wicked monarchs of the Pagan nations:--"Art not thou he who has cut Rahab [Egypt] and wounded the dragon?" "I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of the rivers." Hence is he called Leviathan, the Water Serpent. "Thou breakest the heads of Leviathan in pieces, and gavest him to be meat to thy people in the wilderness" This, like the dragon in the Apocalypse, had more heads than one.

      "The seven-headed serpent which represents the Roman state, is so represented not only in regard to that old serpentine form that tempted our first parents, but has a reflection also upon that tyrannical kingdom of Egypt which was typified under the image of a dragon and leviathan." It is in different forms the symbol of Rome Pagan and Rome Papal.

      DRUNKENNESS. "They are drunken, but not with wine." Persons intoxicated with the pleasure and affluence of this world, are said to be drunk. Also, the stupidity and confusion of mind consequent upon deep affliction or calamity, is symbolized by drunkenness.

      EARTH, symbol of the great body of the people contrasted with the government; the antichristian part of mankind; idolatrous communities. There are in the political and moral worlds, as well as in the natural world, heavens and earth; sun, moon, and stars; mountains, rivers, and seas.

      EARTHQUAKE, the established symbol of the political and moral revolutions and convulsions of society. "To shake the heavens and the earth," is explained by Haggai as denoting the overthrow of thrones, and the subversion of the strength of the kingdoms. "I will shake the heavens and the earth: I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the heathen." chap. ii. 21, 22. The Oneirocritics concur in affirming that "by earthquakes are signified wars, slaughter of men, and subversion of states and fortunes."

      EATING, (the act of,) denotes destruction in any way, or taking from others. "To eat her flesh," is to consume her riches.

      ECLIPSE, or the obscuration of sun, moon, and stars. The universe being the symbol of a kingdom or polity, the obscuration of the sun denotes the diminution or obscuration of the glory of its sovereign, and so of the other potentates symbolized by the moon and stars.

      EYE, the symbol of light or knowledge, as blindness is of ignorance. "A sceptre with an eye upon the top of it," means political skill in managing the affairs of state." Zechariah xii. 4. "I will open my eyes upon the house of Judah." "I will smite the horse and his rider with blindness.

      FIRE signifies fierce destruction. "He is like the refiner's fire to consume the dross." "For behold the Lord will come with fire, to render his anger with fury." lxvi. 15. "For by fire and sword will the Lord plead with all flesh; and the slain of the Lord shall be many." Fire is never the symbol of a blessing, but of a curse. "So [436] destructive is the symbol of fire, (says More,) that it denotes destruction in some way, by war and hostility." "His throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire." "The dispensations of his providence will be very destructive to the wicked."

      FIRE FROM HEAVEN. The comminations or excommunications of those in authority.

      FIRE BROUGHT DOWN FROM HEAVEN. The ecclesiastic beast, or the antichristian priesthood, has such power with the civil government as to bring down its anathemas and persecutions upon those obnoxious to their displeasure.

      FLESH; riches and possessions of any sort. "To eat the flesh of kings, captains," &c. is to consume their wealth and resources. "Flesh is universally referred to gold and riches in the interpretation of dreams."--Achmet.

      FLOOD, symbol of abuse, denunciation, and persecution; emblem of trouble and distress from any cause.

      FOREHEAD; public profession.

      FORNICATION, or Whoredom; symbol of idolatry; departing from the institutions of religion, and forming alliances with the enemies of God. "I am broken with their whorish heart, which has departed from me; and with their eyes, that go a whoring after their idols."

      FROGS, a hieroglyphic of imperfection amongst the Egyptians. "The symbolic meaning of frogs, (says Artimidores) is impostors and flatterers, who seek favor from the lowest of mankind."

      GARMENT. The symbol of the condition or state in which any one is. To be clothed in white, denotes prosperity or victory. To put on clean garments after washing, signifies freedom from oppression, care, and evil, together with honor and joy.

      GOD, when used as a symbol, denotes a magistrate, a prince, or superior. Moses was made a god to Pharaoh.

      GRAVE. The putting of a person into the grave, is consigning him to oblivion. "Not to suffer dead bodies to be put into the grave," denotes that they shall be remembered, and not permitted to be put into eternal silence.

      HAIL denotes inroads of enemies, killing and destroying. Hail from heaven represents destruction by the sword, coming from some government--"Behold the Lord has a mighty and strong one, which as a tempest of hail and a destroying storm, as a flood of mighty waters overflowing, shall cast down to the earth violently. The crown of pride, the drunkards of Ephraim, shall be trodden under foot." Isa. xxviii. 23 & xxx. 30, 31.

      HAND, the symbol of action and hard labor.

      HARLOT denotes an idolatrous community. Cities were formerly represented under the types of virgins, wives, widows, and harlots, according to their different conditions: hence the true church is symbolized by a chaste bride, and an apostate or worldly religious community is depicted by a harlot.

      HARVEST. Cutting down of grain is the figure of cutting down men. "The harvest of the earth is ripe"--the people are fit for [437] destruction. Sometimes harvest denotes a more auspicious state of things, as, when people are prepared for conversion, or being gathered to the Lord: but more generally the harvest, and "the vintage," denote the awful judgments of God's severe vengeance on his enemies.

      HEAD, or Heads. "The head of a beast," denotes that person or those persons in whom the supreme power resides.

      HEAT. "To be scorched with great heat," denotes the endurance of some great calamity.

      HEAVEN and Earth, the whole universe, political or religious. Heaven is always the symbol of government: the higher places in the political universe.

      HILL and Mountain are both symbols of a kingdom.

      HORNS. "The great horn is the first king." Daniel. "The ten horns are ten kings." The well known symbol of a king.

      HORSE; symbol of war and conquest; the state, color, or equipage of a horse represents the condition of his rider--white denotes victory and prosperity; black represents distress and general calamity; red denotes war and fierce hostility; pale is the symbol of death and destruction.

      HOUR; emblem of a very short period of time. One hour, a very short season.

      HUNGER and Thirst; established symbols of affliction--to hunger and thirst no more, denotes a perpetual exemption from all affliction.

      THE following Twelve Reasons for the literal interpretation of Prophecy, afford a condensed view of the reasonings of that host of writers and preachers now agitating the British Isles, on the personal appearance of the Saviour anterior to the Millennium. The pamphlet containing them was forwarded to us by Mr. Begg. We have also received other files of English periodicals, and expect soon to receive others, declarative of the rapid progress of these sentiments in England and Scotland. In the following reasons there are some applications of scripture which are of questionable propriety; but, upon the whole, they are worthy of a very candid and attentive consideration.
ED. M. H.      


      Why those passages in scripture which refer to the Second Advent of our Lord, previous to the Millennium, should be interpreted literally: Extracted from the Works of Messrs. Noel, Cunninghame, Begg, A Spiritual Watchman, &c. Published by JAMES NISBET--London, 1831.

      "THE day is at hand." "Entertaining at least this opinion, I have been anxious to add my warning voice, however feeble, to those already addressing their accents to the church; and with the humility which ought to be associated with a subject of this [438] magnitude to invite my fellow christians to a more distinct recognition of the authority of Christ as the constituted Governor of this world, and to recall their expectations to the accomplishment of his promises in the full redemption of his church. To the second coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, I would direct their eyes, as to the polestar of guidance and of hope, while yet compelled to steer their course across the waves of this troublesome world." "Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy," Rev. i. "And keep those things which are written, for the time is at hand."--A Brief Inquiry, &c. by the Hon. and Rev. G. Noel, page 9.

      I. EVERY part of the Jewish Tabernacle was typical of things to be established in and for the church in this earth. Its sacrifices were types of Christ's perfect sacrifice; its priesthood a shadow of his priestly office; the tabernacle itself a complex volume of hieroglyphics; the Holy of Holies a type of heaven itself. Now as every other part of the tabernacle was typical of what was to be accomplished in this earth, it is to be inferred that the Spirit of God, in directing the erection of a typical heaven upon earth in the midst of the camp of Israel, in which the glory of the Lord was visibly present, did thereby clearly signify to the church that there is a period in the dispensation of the fulness of times, when heaven itself, or the glorious manifestation of Jehovah, shall come down to this earth by the personal presence in it of the Lord Messiah. Were this not to be accomplished, then the highest and noblest part of the sacred structure of this tabernacle shall be without an antitype on this earth, or without any thing correlative to its deep spiritual signification. Nay, were this not to be accomplished, the church in the Levitical dispensation, which had the visible presence of the Lord in the pillar of the cloud by day, and of fire by night, has a higher glory than the church in the dispensation of Messiah; for as this church was not properly constituted till the day of Pentecost, when the Apostles were endued with power from on high, and as before that day the Bridegroom had been taken from his infant church, it follows, from the views of those who advocate a spiritual advent, that there is no period when the church upon earth is to have his presence, and therefore the Levitical church in the wilderness had a higher glory than the church of Messiah is to have, according to this hypothesis, even in the Millennium. But this is utterly incredible, and expressly contradicted, both by the deep signification of the Holy of Holies, or typical heaven reared up in the camp of Israel, and by many plain prophetic annunciations, Numb. xxiii. 21,22; Zech. ii. 10, 12; Ezek. xliii. 7; Is. xxiv.23; Zeph. iii. 15, 17.

      II. Jesus is entered into heaven in the character of our High Priest. All the morning of the great day of Atonement, the Jewish High Priest was employed in offering sacrifices, first for himself, and then for the people. He then entered into the Holy of Holies with the blood of the victims, having first taken a censer of coals from the brazen altar, and strewed incense on it, that he might go within the [439] vail amidst the cloud of smoke which this sweet perfume emitted, During the time of his disappearance, the people mourned, and were humbled on account of their sins. But as soon as he had sprinkled the blood, and offered the incense, he put on his gorgeous robes, and coming forth to bless the people, turned their sorrow into joy. In all this he typified the true High Priest, who is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true, but into heaven itself, and that with his own blood, and the incense of his own intercession, there to appear in the presence of God for us. During his personal absence, his church on earth is in a depressed and suffering condition. It is a time of humiliation and conflict, warfare and reproach, under which they are upheld, and comforted, by the indwelling of the Holy Ghost. But as the great High Priest of his church, the Saviour has another office to perform, which is, to come forth and bless them, to complete their redemption in body as well as in soul, and to bring their days of mourning to an end; this he will do, when in the true gorgeous robes of his Priesthood he shall appear in his glory. "For as he was once offered to bear the sins of many, so to them that look for him, he will appear the second time without sin unto salvation."

      III. In typical illustration it is an invariable rule that the type is always inferior in worth, and in the scale of creation, to the Antitype. Thus Moses, Joshua, David, Solomon, &c. show how the less is always the type of the greater. Even the sun, moon, and stars, are inferior in the scale of creation to the sovereignties which they represent. Now it is strongly insisted on by those who are opposed to a literal interpretation, that the decisive passage, Daniel vii. 13, 14, is simply a figure, denoting the conversion of the world by the spread of the Gospel. "I saw in the night visions, (says Daniel,) and behold one like the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of Days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed." It is clear that there can be no dispute concerning the time of this Advent, as to whether or no it precedes the Millennium. The only question is, whether it be a spiritual or a personal coming? Now throughout the scriptures, Christ is the great antitype; yet if this be not taken in its plain literal sense, Christ would appear merely as a type of the progress of his own Gospel in the heart of man, and therefore a type signifying something infinitely inferior in dignity to that which was pointed out by the morning and evening lamb of the daily sacrifice.

      IV. In the scriptures the reigning of the saints with Christ, is not referred to merely as a state of future prosperity which the church in the latter days was to expect, but as the comfort and encouragement of the people of Christ in every age; as something in which they were personally interested, and as intimately connected with the resurrection from the dead. The truth is, this is the glory to which the [440] suffering church (a character which exclusively belongs to it under the dispensation previous to the Millennium) is elected, being predestinated not only to be partakers of Christ's mercies, but to be partakers of the throne of his glory. The converted nation of the Jews, and the remaining inhabitants of the world, will enjoy a state of eminent blessedness; but it will fall far short of that glorious height of dignity to which the once suffering church will be elevated. As kings and priests, it is implied that there are others over whom they are to reign, and for whom they are to interpose.

      V. All the prophecies which relate to the sufferings and humiliation of the Saviour, were fulfilled literally. Why, then, should not those prophecies which relate to his exaltation and reign upon earth, be in like manner literally accomplished? If we are at liberty to spiritualize all those prophetic declarations which foretell Christ's reign in glory, how can we blame the Jews for adopting a similar mode of interpreting other predictions not more clear and less numerous? The very fact of such prophecies, as, A virgin shall bring forth a son, &c. being ever fulfilled, renders their accomplishment a more glorious display of that divine attribute, which Jehovah claims as peculiarly his own, and in proof of which he even appeals to prophecy. The legitimate conclusion from the literal fulfilment of prophecy in times past surely is, that predictions concerning the future will have a similar accomplishment. That as in Calvary Christ really made his soul an offering for sin, so will he really reign in Mount Zion and before his ancients gloriously. Isaiah liii. 10; xxiv. 23.

      VI. To those who oppose the literal interpretation of the passages in scripture which refer to the approaching Advent of our Lord, it must appear singular, that there is not in the Gospels or Epistles the slightest reference to such a period of peace, and purity, as the Old Testament prophecies every where represent, as still to be enjoyed on earth. Yet in the New Testament, so interwoven are the intimations of the coming of our Lord, and resurrection of the saints, with all reference to the Millennium, that if these events are placed after that happy time, then undeniably there is not the most distant allusion to it. If Paul refers to the Millennium when the sons of Abraham shall be grafted into their own olive tree, it is, when the Deliverer shall come out of Zion, Rom. xi. 26. If Peter alludes to it, as the times of restitution, it is, Then the Lord shall send Jesus Christ, Acts iii: 20. If the same Apostle refers to the Millennium, when the promise of God, uttered by the prophet Isaiah, should be fulfilled, of new heavens and a new earth, when Jerusalem shall be created a joy, and her people a rejoicing, Isa. lxv. 17, 18, still with these new heavens and new earth our views are again directed to the coming of the day of God, which day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, 2 Peter, iii. 8-13.

      VII. On the supposition that Christ was not to return till after the Millennium, it would appear surprising that he should not have included that long term of holiness and happiness among the signs [441] which shall precede his coming, Matth. xxiv. After the world has for thousands of years been torn by dissension, and been the scene of every wickedness, such a lengthened period of universal purity and peace must have proved a very notable sign. But the words "immediately after the tribulation of those days," Matth. xxiv. 29, 20, prove that the coming of the Saviour shall precede the commencement of the Millennium, and therefore its existence could not have been given as a, sign of his approach.

      VIII. When the disciples asked, Acts i. 6, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel? (and this question was put after their understandings had been opened, that they might understand the scriptures, Luke xxiv. 45) our Saviour did not reprove them for cherishing expectations inconsistent with his design, as he did on occasions when this was really the case; but on the contrary gave them every reason to believe that their hopes were well founded. This also proves that at the period of his ascension, the Apostles did expect that he should personally restore the kingdom to Israel.

      IX. The Jewish church, overlooking the series of predictions which related to Christ's humiliation, and fixing their attention only on those which foretold his exaltation, expected with perfect unanimity from Daniel vii. 14, and other prophetic passages, that the Messiah would come as a glorious king to reign in the midst of them; ignorant that he must first suffer many things. The ancient Christian church did in like manner understand the passages of the Old Testament, now adduced by those who advocate a literal translation, as signifying the real, personal, and glorious advent of the Messiah. This strong fact is proved by the writings of St. Barnabas, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Cyril of Jerusalem, Tertullian, &c.

      It has been justly remarked by an anonymous writer on another subject, that "those who lived nearest to the Apostles, must have best known the minds of the Apostles. If then a Romanist and Protestant differ as to the meaning of a text which is the basis of any particular doctrine, let the point in dispute, whenever it is practicable, be referred to the decision of the primitive church."

      X. In the New Testament there are three noun substantives used to signify the advent. Apokalupsis, revelation; Epiphaneia, appearance; Parousia, coming, or presence. The first occurs 1 Cor. i. 7; 2 Thess. i. 7; 1 Pet. i. 7. The second occurs 2 Tim. i.10, in relation to our Lord's first coming in the flesh, and in relation to his second coming in the following texts: 1 Tim. vi. 14; 2 Tim. iv. 1-8; Titus ii. 13. The third, Parousia, occurs four times in Matthew xxiv.; 1 Cor. xv. 23; 1 Thess. ii. 19; iii. 13; iv. 15; v. 23. It is used for the coming or presence of St. Paul with the churches, 2 Cor. x. 10; Phil. i. 26; ii. 12. For the coming of Antichrist 2 Thess. ii. 9; the coming of Stephanus 1 Cor. xvi. 17; the coming of Titus 2 Cor. vii. 7. A review of these passages will satisfactorily prove that these words are used to signify the second personal coming of our Lord; nor does it appear that any of these words is ever used to denote the spiritual or figurative appearance of any person. It is remarkable, [442] too, that the word Epiphaneia was particularly employed by the Greeks to denote the appearance of their gods with circumstances of outward splendor. Now the coming of our Lord to destroy the man of sin previous to the Millennium, in 2 Thess. ii. 8. is expressed by the union of two of the above nouns, to epiphaneia tes parousias autou, by the bright shining of his coming: and if neither of these nouns can singly denote a spiritual advent, much less can they when conjoined; and if each of them, when employed separately, means a personal manifestation and presence, much more must they when united. Since, therefore, the glorious coming of Christ takes place at the destruction of Antichrist, and since this destruction occurs by the unanimous consent of the church of God in all ages before the Millennium, it follows that Christ comes in glory to judge the world before that period.

      XI. When the Lord and his Apostles would inculcate the necessity of watchfulness upon those who profess to acknowledge him as their Master, the language is remarkable. They do not address them in such words as these, "Watch, for death is hastening;" "Be ready, for shortly you must leave this earth"--but thus do they warn them "Watch, therefore, for ye know not the hour your Lord doth come." "Be ye also ready, for in such an hour as ye think not, the Son of Man cometh." In fact, death is a subject to which the Lord and his Apostles but seldom refer, and which they do not bring forward as an incentive to watchfulness and preparation. The coming of the Lord, the second and glorious appearing of the divine Saviour, this it is which they urge upon us, and by the consideration of which, in connexion with the events which are then to take place, they endeavor to overcome the inherent slothfulness of our nature, and stir us up to activity in the work of God, and to watchfulness over our hearts and spirits. For thus doth the Lord himself caution us; "Take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting and drunkenness, and the cares of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares; for as a snare shall it come upon all them that dwell on the face of the whole earth. Watch ye, therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of Man." Luke xxi. 35-37.

      XII. The first event which distinguishes the advent of our Lord Matth. xxv. 31, is, that he shall then sit on the throne of his glory. If it is not till the advent that he shall thus sit on the throne of his glory, it necessarily follows, that he is not now sitting on that throne. Accordingly he himself assures us, Rev. iii. 21, that the throne where he now sits, is that of his Father (in heaven); and his words necessarily imply, that his session on his own throne is yet a future event. If we further inquire what is the identical throne on which Messiah, the Son of Man, shall sit? we find an answer in the well known prophecy of Isaiah ix. 7. "He shall sit upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and establish it." Confirmatory of which, are also the words of Gabriel to his virgin mother. Luke i. 32. "The [443] Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David, and he shall reign over the house of Jacob forever." Unless, then, we identify the throne of David with that of the Eternal Father, which would be blasphemy, we must acknowledge that the session of Messiah on his own throne, is a distinct event, and belonging to another period.

      The judgment in Matth. xxv. 31, commences therefore when the Son of Man sits upon the throne of his father David. Now, is any light thrown upon the chronology of this stupendous event by other passages of Scripture? In Matth, xix. 28, will be found the following remarkable words, spoken by our Lord to his Apostles: "Verily, I say unto you, that ye which have followed me in the regeneration, when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel." In the parallel text of Luke xxii. 28, 30, there is to be found the additional circumstance that it is in the kingdom of our Lord that this promise is to be fulfilled: "Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations, and I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me, that ye may eat and drink at my table, in my kingdom, and sit on thrones,, judging the twelve tribes of Israel." Now the precise time when this kingdom of the Son of Man shall be established, is manifest from Dan. vii. 13, 14, wherein the prophet sees the Messiah brought near to the Ancient of Days, and there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him. And that this event coincides with the beginning of the Millennium is generally acknowledged as a main and leading principle of prophetic chronology, even by the opponents of literal interpretation. We read of no other kingdom given to the Son of Man than the one mentioned in this passage of Daniel, and the corresponding texts of the Apocalypse; and at the close of the dispensation of the kingdom, we learn that he delivers it up to the Father, that God may be all in all, I Cor. xv. 24.

For the Millennial Harbinger.      


      THE government of KING MESSIAH is an absolute monarchy. The constitution and laws by which we and all his subjects are to be ruled, have become matters of unalterable record. He first came to fulfil the constitution and laws given to Israel. This he perfectly did, and produced testimony to demonstration that he was the sum and substance of the first covenant given to the Jewish nation; that he was the Ambassador of God to frame the constitution and laws for the government of all his subjects to the end of time, and the means by which they were to be handed down to us, and to be carried into effect among us. He first inspired twelve men of like passions with ourselves, placed them upon thrones, (Matth. xix. 28.) to give laws and statutes for the government of his subjects. These laws we all have. Whatever command, statute, promise, rule, or example left on record [444] by them, was for our government, comfort, and instruction in righteousness. It is now to the law and testimony we must make our appeal; and if we speak not according to this word, it is because "there is no light in us."

      The question now arises, What commands or examples have we on record for the government of the church of Jesus Christ? We shall refer to the Acts of the Apostles to give an answer, binding on all that acknowledge the authority of Jesus Christ and his Apostles.

      In the first church planted by the Apostles, which was at Jerusalem, we have no evidence of a majority ruling the minority. It appears that when any one departed from the principles proclaimed by the Apostles, they pronounced the judgment of God upon them, (Acts v. 8. 1. Gal. vi. 9.) These were individuals that had embraced the gospel proclamation. It appears that when the disciples multiplied so as to require aid, "the twelve called the multitude of the disciples to them, and said, It is not REASON that we should leave the word of God and serve tables. Wherefore, brethren, look you out from among you seven men full of the Holy Spirit and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business; but we will give ourselves continually to prayer and the ministry of the word. And the saying pleased the whole multitude: and they chose," &c. Here we have the first example of choosing any officer to serve the brethren, or to superintend the affairs of the first church planted by the Apostles in Jerusalem.

      The next church we have any account of is at Antioch, where there were several prophets and teachers. This church was instructed by the Holy Spirit to send Barnabas and Saul to the work whereunto they were called. They went forth by the authority of the church, as directed by the Holy Spirit, to perform the work assigned them. Having passed through many cities and the region round about, after suffering much, they returned, "confirming the souls of the disciples, exhorting them to continue in the faith, [the gospel,] and that through much tribulation we must enter into the kingdom of God." I presume these were members of the church that were yet to enter the kingdom of God. Let us not forget this. "And when they had ordained ELDERS IN EVERY CHURCH they commended them to the Lord, on whom they believed." They then sailed to Antioch, from whence they had been recommended to the favor of God for the work which they fulfilled.

      This is a very interesting and instructive part of the Christian history. Paul, though an Apostle, with Barnabas, was sent by the church that was required by the Holy Spirit to send them forth to perform a certain work. They went forth by the authority of the church, after fasting and prayer, and then it is said they were sent forth by the Holy Spirit. They then acted in conformity to the established rules or regulations of the church at Antioch, sanctioned by the Holy Spirit. They ordained not an Elder, but ELDERS IN EVERY CHURCH, and returned to give an account of their work which they fulfilled. This shows for what purpose the church fasted and prayed, and laid their hands on them--not to ordain them as ministers of the [445] word, but for a blessing upon them to enable them to perform this mission; and they returned after fulfilling the commission, and gave an account of their stewardship to the church. This is reason--this is revelation. When the nation, by its President, sends a minister to any court, his work is laid out for him. When he has fulfilled it, he returns to give an account of his work; then his commission ceases. Such is the example Paul and Barnabas have left for us. We shall attend to particulars in our next.

For the Millennial Harbinger.      


      "Think not that I am come to bring peace to the earth. I came not to bring peace, but a sword. For I am come to make dissension between father and son, between mother and daughter, between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law; so that a man's enemies will be found in his own family. He who loves father or mother more than me, is not worthy of me. He who loves son or daughter more than me, is not worthy of me. He who will not take his cross and follow me, is not worthy of me. He who preserves his life, shall lose it: but he who loses his life, on my account, shall preserve it."
Prince of Peace.      


HARTFORD, (Con.) April 20th, 1830.      

Dear Brother,

      I ONCE thought that no one in this our enlightened land, could be opposed to missionary operations; but from depravity and ignorance: I once felt that it might be my duty to go myself as a missionary to Burmah: and till recently, have advocated and contributed to your support. I have done what I could. The last year, twenty dollars, cash: this year, my last and best gift, thirteen dollars, books--viz. one New Testament, Campbell's translation, $1,25; one Hymn Book, 00,25; three Debates, (with Walker, with M'Calla, and with Owen,) $4,50; and the Christian Baptist, 7 volumes, $7,00. I send these books to you, because I wish you to read them--condemn them not unread.

      "I once thought, felt," &c, I now think and feel differently. I think there are many, enlightened in the scriptures, who, from the best of motives, are opposed not only to the modern popular missionary operations, but to all the sectarian "benevolent schemes" of our time. The church of Jesus Christ, the pillar and support of the truth; the ancient gospel, and a restoration of the ancient order of things, engross all their thoughts: and the number of these is rapidly increasing; and THEY WILL INCREASE, the kingdom of the clergy, of the sects, and of every other kingdom which opposes, shall be wholly subverted. "Great is the truth and mighty above all things, and will prevail." The books I now send are my last and best gift to the Burman mission--I [446] do not say, the last that I shall ever give; but the last at present. I have ever loved you as a Christian, and, as such, still love you. I have deeply felt for you in your many labors and trials. I venerate the name for the devotion of Judson, and would to Heaven there were thousands such: but to the system of things under which you act, and by which supported, I cannot any longer, conscientiously, contribute my mite. Read the CHRISTIAN BAPTIST, dear brother, and count not him an enemy who tells you the truth.

      We parted, I think, at H------, N. Y.; and shall not again meet till we appear before the judgment seat of Christ: O, may we there meet on the right hand of the Judge, and be welcomed to the joys of our Lord!--After completing my theological course at H. I went on to W------; spent about two years and a half at the C------ C------; graduated at B------ U------ in September, 1828; spent a little time with Dr. B------ at Salem, from whence I received a call to E------, Me.; was ordained; took the pastoral charge of the Baptist church in that place; married me a wife; and received the liberal support of from $500 to $700 per annum till the 31st of December last; when, feeling it my duty, I resigned my pastoral charge, and took my dismission. I am now on my way to K------, this state, where I expect to teach a school for my support, and preach and teach what I can on religion for nothing.

      I would be happy to have you write me, and will expect a letter from you, as soon as you can tell me how you regard my last donation. Condemn not the books unread. Please tender my Christian regards to Mrs. W. and believe me your friend and brother,
      To J------.

      P. S. Please direct your letter to S------, Ms. care of Elder Z------, L. L------


STURBRIDGE. (Ms.) October 3d, 1830.      

Dear Brother W------,

      I REGRET that I am obliged to send you three volumes of the enclosed unbound. I regret that they were not forwarded to you several months ago: but that I am so obliged to do, that they were not before forwarded, is not my fault. I sent them to Boston about the 1st of May last; requested, and so far as money was needed, provided for their being bound and forwarded: but,

      "Honesty is the best policy," (said Mr. Lincoln to Mr. Wheelock, when delivering them up to return them.) "The plain truth is, I did not like Mr. Campbell's books very well, and therefore, did not wish to have any hand in disposing of them. Mr. Campbell is probably a friend of Mr. E------s', and that's all well enough: but I have given the reason why I did not comply with Mr. E------s' request."

      On my arrival at this place, on the 28th ult. I found them, cash and all, returned. But, (again,) encouraged by a note in the last Christian Watchman: [447]

      ----> The ship Sapphire will sail for Calcutta on the 15th instant. Letters or parcels for the Missionaries in Burmah will be forwarded, if they are sent to the Baptist Missionary Rooms, 52, Washington street."

      I again forwarded them, with the hope that you may ere long receive them. I do not expect that you will, at first glance, like any better than Mr. Lincoln: but my last request is, condemn not the books unread.
  Yours in the hope of Immortality,

      P. S. I enclose, also, "The Millennial Harbinger, Extra, on "Remission of Sins."


      "THE following sentiments are contained in a letter from a Missionary on foreign shores, addressed to a friend in this country. They will be read with interest, as exhibiting in what light a person now, wearing out his life in the cause of Christ, views the efforts of those professed laborers in the vineyard of our Lord, whose chief object is not the increase of piety nor the conversion of souls. The striking remarks relative to the support of Missions, are recommended to the special and prayerful attention of every christian who is quieting conscience with objections to the Missionary enterprize, while neglecting to assist in sustaining it.--Am. Bap. Mag."

      "A few days ago I had the pleasure of receiving your two letters, one dated April 29th, 1830, and the other October 3, of the same year, accompanied, by a small box containing the Christian Baptist, and other works of Mr. A. Camp. bell, which you say is your "last and best gift to the Burman Mission." You will not expect, of course, that I shall now tell you, unqualifiedly, what I think of these writings; for as yet, I have not had leisure to examine only a few pieces which they contain; and as you exhort me 'not to condemn them unread,' so you will not expect me to approve them unread. I do not think, however, that it requires we should read the whole of such a work, in order to judge whether it is likely to be profitable to us. You know that when I was in the Seminary at ------, I was extremely officious in all matters of theological dispute; if with the same zeal, I had spent as much time in striving to subdue the evil propensities of my depraved nature, and to promote a devout and holy temper of soul, as I did in speculating upon those truths to which human reason ought to bow without the least demur, because revealed in scripture, I do sincerely believe the Holy Spirit would have enlightened my mind, and have given me an incomparably better knowledge of the deep things of God, than I have now obtained. I see my folly and lament it. Considering the shortness of our life, the immense depravity of our natural minds, and the difficulty we have in subduing a single one of our deep-rooted selfish principles, it appears to me, that instead of becoming allies to others in their contentions, it is our wisest course to turn our weapons against the all-destroying enemy within ourselves. When we get to heaven, where nothing in our characters will weigh at all, except our personal attainments in holiness, will it not seem to us exceedingly unprofitable to have been so busied, during our life on earth, in discussing matters of church order, whether this or that creed ought to be adopted, or whether none at all; whether ministers ought to have a collegiate education or not; whether they ought to be supported or not; and such like things, that we had no leisure to subdue our own spirits, and seek after those degrees of personal piety to which eminent saints have attained. It matters not whether it be one object or another which occupies our attention, if our minds are [448] thereby diverted from our internal concerns, and we are prevented from making those attainments in a life of holiness which we might otherwise make. We need not fancy we are glorifying God, or doing good to the souls of others, by those public labors which make us neglect the spiritual care of our own souls: for we glorify God only as we have the temper of mind which was in Christ; and we do good to others only as the divine unction accompanies our labors; which unction we have in proportion as the Holy Spirit dwells in us.

      "I do earnestly desire and pray, that 'the ancient order of things may be restored;' but I do not think this can be done, until men shall be raised up who will lay 'the axe at the root of the tree:' and the root of the evil consists, not so much in the form or tendency of our creed, as in the unsanctified temper of our hearts. A worldly spirit blinds our minds, nor can we be aware of the difference between ourselves and primitive christians, until in simplicity we receive these words of Christ: 'If any man will be my disciple, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me.' The whole design of the commands and duties enjoined in the gospel of Christ, is to counteract and destroy the propensities of our fallen nature and make us holy, and so prepare us for the heavenly state; and whatever does not have a bearing on this point, in relation to ourselves or others, appears to me unworthy of much discussion among christians.

      "I infer from your saying the books are your 'last and best gifts to the Burman Mission,' that you have adopted Mr. Campbell's sentiments about Missions and other benevolent operations of the present day, and with him suppose we are 'living like princes,' making ourselves rich on the charities of the people; but I am sure you would alter your opinion of us, if you were to come and board in either of our families a few weeks, and live just as we live. * * * * * * What are your objections to Missions? Taking the New Testament for your guide, surely you cannot suppose that ministers ought not to go among the heathen; nor would you suppose that an European Missionary in India could support himself by personal labor, if you had any idea of the climate; (and by the way, if the work of a Missionary is to support himself, he might accomplish that end much better by staying at home;) nor could you suppose the heathen would support him, if you knew their principles. What then is to be done? Suppose all christians should make a stand and resolve that they would do nothing for Missions until every thing should be managed to their minds, when would the gospel be carried among the heathen? If you conscientiously think ministers ought to come as Missionaries to this place, without depending upon any society for support, what excuse have you for not coming yourself? especially as there are so few who would be willing to undertake it, and as you have had some impressions of duty on the point.

      "Our hearts are so extremely deceitful, so selfish, that we sometimes, unawares, substitute a self-denying theory for a self-denying life. I have frequently detected myself in such self-deceptions; and though I doubt not you acted conscientiously in withdrawing from the Missionary cause, on account of misapplication, as you suppose, of the funds, yet I do feel assured that you have adopted wrong principles on the subject. Suppose, for instance, you were placed in the circumstances of the poor widow whom our Lord commended; and were revolving in your mind whether you should cast your two mites into the treasury, would you, on the principles you have adopted, have done as the poor widow did? Would you not have said, 'The funds of this treasury are collected in a bad way: many give for no other purpose than to be seen of men, and many of the appropriations go only to enrich the scribes and priests, who live like princes;' and, considering these circumstances, would you not have concluded, that to support such a fund would be to countenance sin, and have kept the two mites for the same reasons, and with the same conscientious feelings, that you have in not supporting Missions? Yet our Lord knowing for certainty that many gave from bad motives, and, not to mention other appropriations, that an appropriation would be made out of these funds to pay Judas for the worst of all purposes, commended the poor widow. My dear brother, [449] weigh this matter, and do not let the real or supposed misperformance of duty in others, hinder you from obeying the injunction of Christ, by which you are bound either to go personally and carry the gospel to the heathen, or contribute to the support of others who will go. Though it should be true that others support religious and charitable institutions in a wrong way, that does in no wise excuse you or any other person from doing it in a right way."

To the Editor of the American Baptist Magazine.

WELLSBURG, Va. June 6th, 1832.      

      SIR--I HAVE now lying before me the "Religious Herald," of May 25th, in which, under the head "RELIGIOUS.--Piety better than Controversy," and a few remarks credited to your periodical, I find a reply, such as it is, and what there is of it, to two letters, written by me in April and October, 1830, to "a Missionary on foreign shores." The letter was received, I presume, in a package with others, directed to the care of the Corresponding Secretary of the American Baptist Missionary Board, and by him prepared for, and communicated to the public, in the form we now have it. I regret not that it is published, but that it was not sent to me first. As I have not yet received it in the handwriting of my friend; as it of right belongs to me, and I wish to see the thing itself and the whole of it, before I write to him again, this is to request that it may be forthwith forwarded to me to this place. If I might have the whole as cheap as I have a part of it in common print, expecting never more to see my friend's face in the flesh, and having no other keep-sake from him, I would rather pay postage for the paper on which he wrote, and on that paper to see the print of his pen. The letter I ask is the original autograph of J------ W------'s letter to
  Your most obt.
F. W. E.      



WELLSBURG, Va. August 25, 1832.      

Dear Brother Wade,

      WHEN my letters of April and October, 1830, to you, were first written, they were not intended for the public eye, but for yours and your associates' alone: and much as my confidence was then shaken in the policy, management, and managers of the modern popular Missionary operations, I did not anticipate being placed by them in just the situation I now find myself in reference to you. I had calculated, if you ever replied to me, you would send a sealed letter, superscribed as I requested, to Sturbridge; and that it would have remained sealed till I received it. But whatever it might have been, as it came from you, and whatever your designs and instructions respecting it, you will see, when this comes to hand, if not before, the use your friends have made of it--you will see, also, something of my situation. I have not yet received your letter, though I wrote for it early in June last. I am now obliged to reply to the [450] "sentiments" it is said to contain, without knowing when I have your words, and when not--without knowing whether I have all, or only a part of what you addressed to me. You will see something of the light in which your conscientious friend, and others with him, are viewed--judged, by the scribe or priest, whom you would have him still, like the poor widow of old, cast in his mite to feed.

      That you should mistake the character, and miss in your comments, on the works I sent you, having had leisure when you wrote me, to examine only a few pieces in them, was not at all strange, nor different from what I would have expected; but who is this, that unqualifiedly pronounces--that presumes to say of those who proclaim the ancient gospel for obedience and salvation, and are laboring to restore the ancient order of things to the church of God, that their "chief object is not the increase of piety, nor the conversion of souls"!! One, we are sure, who knows not our hearts--one, who should, from our works, have pronounced differently. But, "Blessed are they who are persecuted for righteousness' sake; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are you, when men shall revile you and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely for my sake. Rejoice and be exceedingly glad; for great is your reward in heaven; for so did they persecute the prophets, who were before you."--The MASTER.

      If I have your sentiments in the letter before me, (and I shall reply as though I have) you judged rightly in supposing 'that I would not expect you to approve or condemn the works sent you unread." No: for this reason I requested you to read them. It may not be requisite for you to read all of any work, to judge whether or not it is likely to be profitable to you; but for me, I found it necessary to read the Christian Baptist, all of it, more than once; and then, driven by it to the Bible, to read this as I never read it till then, and for considerable time, before I could be persuaded to renounce the gospel of John Calvin, modified by Andrew Fuller, cum multus aliis doctoribus, for the gospel of Paul and Peter--and the modern protestant order of things, for the ancient order of the New Testament. I could not be persuaded to renounce those and receive these, because I had not as yet learned the difference between them. I, too, earnestly desired and prayed 'that the ancient order of things might be restored,' without knowing what that order was. I did not then think this could, nor do I now think it can be done, without laying the axe at the root of the trees. In these things we agreed then, and we agree now. But what is the root of the evil? what the axe? and how must it be used to destroy it? You answer: "The root of the evil consists not so much in the form and tendency of our creed, as in the unsanctified temper of our hearts." Again: "When we get to heaven, where nothing in our characters will weigh at all, except our personal attainments in holiness, will it not seem to us exceedingly unprofitable to have been so busied during our life on earth in discussing matters of church order, whether this or that creed be adopted, or whether none at all; whether ministers ought to have a collegiate education or [451] not; whether they ought to be supported or not, and such like things, that we had no leisure to subdue our own spirits, and seek after those degrees of personal piety to which eminent saints have attained." So much for the root! Truly, after reading these "sentiments" in the letter before me, I am wont to cry out for my friend, Thou seest men as trees walking! 'The creed, whether one thing or another, or none at all, is of no account, provided the heart be sanctified'!! And how would you sanctify the heart? "In striving to subdue my depraved nature, and to promote a devout and holy temper of soul"--If, &c.--I do sincerely believe the Holy Spirit would have enlightened my mind," &c. &c. Here is the axe, and the manner of using it!! How differently did Christ and his Apostles teach! The axe, with them, was the Word of JEHOVAH. Conversion and sanctification were from obedience to this word, through the belief of it. Their creed to them was every thing--or, without it, sanctification nothing. "Sanctify them through thy truth. Thy word is the truth." " "Contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints--one Lord, one faith, one immersion"--immersion for the remission of sins. Hence all who believed and obeyed the ancient gospel, were justified, sanctified, adopted, and saved; and the blood of Christ purified their consciences from dead works to serve the living God. After this, we meet not with one complaint from these sanctified ones, such as you make, of the awful, immense depravity of your unsubdued spirit. The root of the evil, I conceive, consists altogether "in the form and tendency of our creed." If our creed be the scriptures alone, in the form the Apostles and Prophets delivered them, its tendency will be to make us just such christians as were the Apostles themselves, and those who constituted the first churches of their planting. If it be something else, or these in some other form, the root of the evil remains. Without, therefore, laying the axe here--without conversion to and by the word of truth, all our strivings, and watchings, and longings after sanctification, are enthusiastic in the extreme. You will not infer from this that I undervalue a devout and holy temper of soul.--No: without this, there is nothing of christian character--nor, that I think, or would speak lightly, of strivings, watchings, and fastings: but, every thing in its own order.

      I come now to the second part of your letter. You infer from my saying "the books I now send are my last and best gift to the Burman Mission," that I have adopted Mr. Campbell's sentiments about Missions, and other benevolent operations of the present day, and with him suppose, you are living 'like princes,' making yourselves rich on the charities of the people." How, my brother, could you make this inference? Read again its connexion--"I do not say the last that I shall ever give; but the last at present. I have ever loved you as a christian, &c. &c. but to the SYSTEM of things under which you act, and by which supported, I cannot any longer, conscientiously, contribute my mite." Such being the language, in which, I fully expressed my sentiments, immediately after the saying above quoted, how could you infer that I supposed 'you were living [452] like princes, and making yourselves rich on the charities of the people'? That Mr. Campbell entertains such sentiments of all Missionaries, or of the Burman Missionaries in particular, I have no testimony, and consequently no faith.

      "What," you next ask, "are your objections to Missions?" You 'doubt not I acted conscientiously in withdrawing from the Missionary cause, on account of misapplication, as I supposed, of its funds.' 'Tis true, that thousands and tens of thousands go to support the agents, the secretaries, and other managers of this cause, and some of them in affluence, while Missionaries like you "live *   *   *   *   *" But I object not to this, more than to the sources, the ways and means of raising the funds; or to the Boards by which, when raised, they are disposed of. I object, and have withdrawn from it, because I find no model of the institution--the motley combinations of saints and sinners, the Missionary Boards, the Presidents, Vice Presidents, &c. &c. in the New Testament.

      "What then is to be done?"

      Heaven's institution for converting the world is the church of Jesus Christ. Let Zion, therefore, arise--let christians become wholly sanctified through the truth--let them embrace the ancient gospel, and the ancient order of things--let them act from the principles which these impart--let the Apostles again be placed on the thrones to which the Saviour exalted them--and let those who pretend to proclaim the gospel, first understand what the gospel is. These I would place among the first things, without which all our efforts are in vain.

      Though I have as high an opinion of your bible knowledge as of most Missionaries, and a better opinion of your goodness of heart, than you seem to have yourself; yet, I very much question whether you have not still to learn what be the first principles of the doctrine of Christ. With the views you possessed, when the letter before me was written, I am sure you would not preach as Peter did on the day of Pentecost; nor as Philip to the Ethiopian Eunuch; nor as Paul to the jailor at Philippi. Nor would you immerse on the same confession, for the same purpose. Were a trembling Burman now to stand before you and say, "Sir, what shall I do to be saved?" Would not your answer be rather like this--"How long have you felt concerned about yourself? What first called up your attention to the subject of religion? Do you feel that you are the chief of sinners--that your heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked? Do you believe this? You are, sir, totally morally depraved--you cannot think a good thought, nor perform a good action, till a work of grace is effected in you by the sovereign influence of the Holy Spirit. Do you believe this? The wind bloweth where it listeth--so is every one that is born of the Spirit--i. e. so it is with every one. Do you believe this? You must believe these things, and experience them too, or you cannot be saved." Now, should the Burman, having read Mr. Judson's translation of the New Testament, profess faith in Jesus as the Messiah and Son of God, 'No matter,' you would tell him: 'it is unprofitable whether this or that creed be adopted, or none [453] at all--the root of the evil consists not so much in the form or tendency of our creed, as in the unsanctified temper of our hearts.' You would, therefore, set about sanctifying his heart for him, or look to the Holy Spirit to do it, as a sovereign, unconditional act, without any reference to, divine testimony, to faith, or to baptism.

      "When would the gospel be carried among the heathen?" We cannot tell when; but doubt not, the ancient order of things being restored, much sooner than it now will, by all the sectarian institutions of our time.

      I am not opposed to missions, nor to missionary support; but let them originate in, and be confined to the church. If the congregation to which I at present belong, were able and disposed to send out one of its members and support him in publishing the glad tidings of salvation to any people, considering him amenable only to the Lord and to itself, I would not object, nor be found among the last to contribute to his support. Nor would I refuse to go myself to Burmah, under such patronage. But if a Missionary Convention be talked of--a Board of Managers from different churches, to appoint agents to collect funds for this purpose--a going first before this Board to be examined in reference to some special call--to be licensed by it and sent out, or by it kept at home; I would regard this as altogether another institution, and from it stand aloof.

      I have considered the case of the poor widow, which you submitted to me, and have placed myself in her condition. Such, if I mistake not, was my real condition, (or one very like it,) three or four years ago; when I contributed liberally to what I then regarded "the benevolent operations of the present day." But had I then known what I now know, that these "operations" were not of heaven, but of men; had I supposed that an appropriation would be made out of these funds to pay Judas for the worst of all purposes--for betraying my Lord and Master--I would have kept back my mite, as I now do, for another treasury; and in so doing, would then have expected, as I now expect, to be approved by HIM who searches the heart, and who will judge and reward every man according to his works. Finally, my dear brother, accept of my unfeigned thanks for the good intentions your charity has awarded to me in my aberrations from the orthodox faith and practice; and be assured that I never attributed to you, nor do I now attribute, any other than the purest motives in going among the heathen. I thank you for your exhortations; and in turn, beseech you, if you neglect all the other books which I sent, neglect not "THE SACRED WRITINGS OF THE APOSTLES AND EVANGELISTS OF JESUS CHRIST."
  With the best wishes,
            I remain, yours,
F. W. EMMONS.      

      To JONATHAN WADE, American
            Baptist Missionary, Burmah.

O. Jennings, D. D. Exposed---No. 1.

      HAVING in our Extra, No. 5, given the prominent features of the moral character of Dr. Jennings' book, we now proceed to examine some of its arguments and criticisms. His criticisms on the Greek text and his strictures on the New Version first claim attention.

      In our confabulation in Nashville, Mr. Jennings relied on Ephes, ii. 8. as proof that faith is the special gift of God in some supernatural way, to certain individuals. We argued that every thing enjoyed by man is the bounty or gift of God. Such are all his corporeal and mental powers. The five external senses, perception, memory, imagination, judgment, reason, are God's gifts to us: so are food, raiment, education, faith, hope, and charity. But he has his own way of giving us every thing. He bestows food, raiment, education, knowledge, faith, hope, and love, by the use of certain means, and in certain channels. He gives us faith, knowledge, bread, and water, not by miracle or peculiar interposition; but by stated means or laws from which he does not depart. It is affirmed that he has sometimes fed and clothed men by miracle, and imparted faith, knowledge, and all other things by special interposition; but this is not now the order of things. Ravens feed not our Elijahs. The cruise of oil and the handful of flour of our widows become not barrels. Manna falls not round our tents, nor do our shoes and hats continue new for forty years. No longer can a thousand men feed on one loaf and leave more than two. No light from heaven above the brightness of the sun shines around our persecuting foes, nor are our modern Sauls converted into Pauls by a voice, and impulse immediate from the skies. Faith now comes by hearing the word of God.

      Mr. Jennings and they of his school contend that faith in every instance is a special grace, wrought in the heart, by sending the Holy Spirit on a special errand to every elect man, woman, and child; and that unless there be this special errand, and work upon the heart, no man can believe to salvation any thing which God speaks. He affirms that it requires the same power to work faith in the heart which was requisite to raise Jesus from the dead. Consequently the resurrection of Christ is no greater miracle than was the faith possessed by Mr. Jennings and all other persons making the same pretensions!

      To sustain this view of faith he quoted Eph. ii. &c. alleging that Paul said that faith was the gift of God in his sense of the word gift. To which we replied, that Paul no where said that faith was the special gift of God. Thus the reader has the matter fairly before him.

      The common version of chap. ii. 28. was then quoted: "By grace you are saved through faith, and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God." We replied that the word faith could not be the [455] antecedent to the word that: for one of the most common rules of syntax decides that "the relative must agree with its antecedent in gender and number." PISTIS, the antecedent, is feminine; and TOUTO, the relative, is neuter. If, then, that refer to faith, the most general rule of Greek syntax is set at naught, and the meaning of ten thousand passages rendered matters of doubtful disputation; for if Mr. Jennings could have sustained his point, he would have subverted the laws of the Greek language, and made the New Testament no better than the dreams of Bunyan.

      He quotes Doddridge as asserting that in order to save Paul from a "flat tautology," it is better to make TOUTO refer to pistis, than to reject "the weightiest and most natural interpretation," because "judicious critics" have laid so much stress upon syntax." Doddridge is at one time condemned, and at another approved by Mr. Jennings. On ecclesia he is heterodox; but in his note upon Eph. ii. 8. he is orthodox. All this is natural enough. Mr. J. in order to set aside this universal rule, goes in quest of exceptions to it, and concluded he had found five besides the text in dispute. Here they are:--

      Eph. ii. 8. "For by grace are you saved through faith; and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God." Phil. i. 28. "And in nothing terrified by your adversaries: which to them is an evident token of perdition; but to you of salvation, and that of God." Eph. vi. 18. "Praying always, with all prayer and supplication in the spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance" Gal. iii. 17. "And this I say, that the covenant that was confirmed before of God in Christ." 1 Cor. vi. 11. "Neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers," &c. "shall inherit the kingdom of God; and such were some of you."

      Here are five instances of similar construction, four of them in proof of the first, in which this rule of syntax is said to be violated. In the first, pistis, (faith,) feminine; in the second, soteria, salvation,) feminine; in the third, proseuche and deesis, (prayer and supplication,) both feminine; in the fourth, diatheke, (covenant,) feminine; in the fifth, pornoi, eidolatria, moichoi, (fornicators, idolators, adulterers,) all masculine: and in the four first we have TOUTO, neuter, said to agree with them; and in the fifth we have TAUTA, neuter and plural. To these he adds another instance of a different sort. Gal. iv. 19. "My little children (teknia, neuter,) of whom (ous, masculine,) I travail in birth again." These six are adduced in proof that a relative may not agree with its antecedent in gender and number; or that because six exceptions are found, the rule is not general; and therefore we may make an exception whenever it suits our caprice or prejudice. Such in all fairness and honesty is the proof adduced to prove that Paul calls faith the gift of God in the most special import of the word gift.

      Our objections to this are the three following:--

      1. Were it fairly proved that there are exceptions to this general rule, it ought to be proved that Eph. ii. 8. (the text in dispute) is one of these. This Mr. Jennings has not attempted; consequently all [456] his other supposed exceptions can prove nothing in the case. It is absolute tyranny over language to call one word an outlaw, and then summon five others called outlaws to prove that the word in dispute is also an outlaw.

      2. On the principle assumed a disputant has nothing to do, when pressed with any difficulty, but to declare that what he cannot explain, or admit with safety to his scheme, is an exception!

      3. But these instances are not exceptions to the above rule; consequently his premises are false. This we shall now prove. In the first place TOUTO belongs to that class of adjective pronouns called in the grammars used in Oxford, Cambridge, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dublin, and in North America, demonstrative; and this class of pronouns being both adjective and relative, each of them is subject to the most general rule in syntax--it must agree in gender and number with that to which it refers, whether antecedent or consequent. There is not a rule more universal in the Greek or Latin language.

      But there is another rule, of which our author seems to have been altogether ignorant, which sweeps off at one brush four of his six, and explains the mystery of these alleged exceptions. It is in the words following, to wit:--"When the relative respects a whole sentence it is put in the NEUTER gender." No matter what gender precedes it FOR A SENTENCE IS ALWAYS NEUTER! as, Meus carus amicus mortuus est, QUOD est mihi summo dolori--(My dear friend is dead, which is a very great grief to me)--which affair or thing is a grief to me.--Me methuskesthe oino, en ho [neuter] estin assotia--(be not drunk with wine, in which (thing, not wine,) is profligacy. We place under this general rule four of his examples. "By grace you are saved through faith; and this [thing, or affair,] is not of yourselves: it is the gift of God. The relative touto, [this,] which is in the neuter gender, cannot stand for pistis, [faith,] which is the feminine; but it has the whole sentence which goes before for its antecedent." So say Chandler, Macknight, and Dr. A. Clark. Phil. i. 27, 28. "Stand fast in one spirit, striving together for the faith of the gospel; and in nothing terrified by your enemies; which is to them an evident token of perdition; but to you of salvation: and this [thing] from God." I have just now examined Adam Clark, Thomson, Pierce, Halet, and Macknight, who concur with the above. But in Griesbach's pointing it is still more plain. He points it thus:--"Which is to them a manifestation of destruction, but to you of salvation:--and this from God, because this has been granted you for Christ," &c. Eph. vi. 18. falls under the same rule. "Praying always with all prayer and supplication; and for this purpose watch," &c. So Macknight, Thomson, cum multis aliis. So also Gal. iii. 17. "And this (thing) I say, that the covenant," &c.

      The example brought from 1 Cor. vi. 11. is a begging of the question altogether; for touto has not for its antecedent nouns of the same gender. The following rule disposes of this example:--"Two nouns, one masculine and one feminine, are joined with an adjective neuter [457] plural." Males and females are included in these nouns: thus some of them are of the common gender.

      His sixth and last example falls very naturally under the following rule: "Relatives often agree with their antecedents, not as to their arbitrary gender, but as to their sense." Matthew xxviii. 19, Convert the nations, (ta ethna, neuter) baptizing them, (autous, masculine)--Rom. ii. 14, Col. ii. 19, Rev. xvii. 16. See Parkhurst, page 63, in his syntax. So in the case advanced, children (tecknia) neuter, includes both males and females; and as the masculine is more worthy than the feminine, as grammarians say, hous refers to the masculine. Neither of these last examples belong to the subject in dispute.

      Thus, by the unalterable laws of syntax, we refer each of his examples to well established rules, and show that Mr. Jennings was either ignorant of the genius of the language, or else wittingly imposed upon his readers. The former, we would opine, rather than the latter. Indeed, he asks with such apparent surprize, Where did Mr. Campbell get the word "affair" in Ephesians ii. 8? that we must suppose him ignorant of the whole matter.

      Must we suppose that he did not know that not A. Campbell, but J. Macknight, found the word affair! And did he not know from the Latin grammar itself that an adjective or pronoun in the neuter gender, without a substantive, in construction always has negotium, signifying affair, or thing, understood? (In the Greek language pragma represents negotium.) So that affair or thing is, by the laws of Greece and Rome, comprehended in the word touto, standing as it does in Eph. ii. 8.

      Macknight's version of this passage is thus sustained by unquestionable authority. It is in perfect conformity with Greek and Latin syntax. We know of no man of any literary pretensions who has presumed to question it. The Latin versions which we have seen agree with it: that of Arias Montanus reads thus--"Nam gratia estis servate per fidem; et hoc non ex vobis; Dei donum." The Vulgate, also, "Gratia enim illa estis servati (et hoc non est ex vobis sed Dei donum est.)" The most heterodox English versions, as well as the orthodox, so read it. One of this class lying before me thus translates it: "For by favor you are saved through faith; and this salvation is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God." had the king's translators thought that touto referred to faith, they would not have rendered it that, but this, as referring to the last mentioned, as their manner was. So that we have all versions, and all authority, against Mr. Jennings. So plain is this passage, that I think Macknight's supplement redundant, and wholly unnecessary, though perfectly justifiable for explanation. I also think that the king's translators are awkwardly plain in preferring that to this. With Griesbach's punctuation it needs no supplement: "For by favor you are saved through faith; and this not from yourselves; the gift of God, not from works so that no one can boast."

      Some Greek, Latin and English Testaments, like the anonymous version now lying before me, read and print it thus, on the authority [458] of many old manuscripts: "For by grace are you saved through faith, (and that not from us: it is the gift of God) but not by works, so that no man can boast." Thus every thing in christendom is against the gloss of our author.

      Thus we dispose of one of Mr. Jennings' censures of the new version, and of the bulwark of his theory of miraculous faith. The above defence, on philological principles, we submit, with all confidence, to every impartial linguist; being persuaded that even among learned deists there cannot be found one, versed in the Greek language, who would hazard his reputation by denying its correctness.

      We are of opinion that all Mr. Jennings' criticisms to which we shall object, are as futile and unfounded as this to which we have now attended. It appeared to us expedient to expose it as fully as we have done, although, intrinsically, it is but a very small matter. The reader will, no doubt, perceive how much labor an uncandid and bold opponent, hazardous of his assertions, may impose on any one who is disposed to examine all his glosses, and to dissipate the mist in which he hides the truth frequently from himself as well as from those whom he presumes to instruct. In my soul I pity those who are guided by such critics and theologians, who would vainly attempt to subvert all the established laws of language to carry a favorite opinion.


      AN aged and venerable disciple in Rutland county, Vermont, was suspected of unsoundness in the faith of the Regular Baptist church, and accordingly a committee of the brethren was sent to labor with him and to convince him of the error of his way. The committee waited on him, and, by way of discharging the duty of admonition, wished him to show them how far he had departed from the faith, by giving them a statement, in writing, of his views. He declined, telling them he thought duty required of them to make a report for themselves, and not to require him either to write his own indictment, or to make a report of his own heresy. He wished them to become acquainted with his sentiments, and would afford them every facility of understanding them; but could not think of making out, for the use of the church, a report. They exhibited a very good spirit, however; and spoke with much tenderness and affection--which was reciprocated.

      He attended the church meeting, and found they had failed to make a report in writing, but only stated a few things verbally--all in good temper. He was interrogated touching his views, and answered all their questions. The church proposed calling a council to advise them what to do. He alleged that as their fellowshipping him must depend upon their own views of his faith, sentiments, and practice, he thought it wholly unnecessary to call a council. He thought himself, moreover, unworthy of putting the brethren of other churches to so [459] much trouble. However, a council they would have--and the whole church besought him to prepare, for that council, a written statement of his views. To this request from the church he stated;--1st. That he thought if they had any difficulty with him, their duty was to state what it was;--2d. That he took the New Testament as it stood in its original plainness, fulness, and simplicity, as the standard of his faith, and being opposed to all human systems, he thought any such document as they required of him, wholly unnecessary. But that he might not appear stubborn and self-willed, he agreed to give them a statement, in writing, of his views, which accordingly was presented to the council in session, on the 22d of June last. He furnished his own indictment, a document equal to about eight pages of this work, on which they asked him many questions in the words of human wisdom, which he answered with all candor and simplicity, "as far as he was able," in the words of the New Testament.

      He was called in to hear the report of the council, which, in substance, was;--"That he was in error; but as they hoped he was not yet fully settled in it, they advised the church not to cut him off, but to admonish and pray for him." They advised him not to spread nor propagate the sentiments he had exhibited, but to review the subject carefully and prayerfully, "lest, by any means, he had run too fast."

      He replied;--If God had given him any light, he required him to let it shine, and not to put it under a bushel or a bed. If he was in any error, he requested them to show it to him; but this they declined. All this was done in great good temper and courtesy, so that no complaint on this ground could be made on either side. They alleged, that if they had required the church to cut him off, they would have furnished him with a specification of his errors; but that not being the case, they could not consent to do it at that time. The whole proceedings resulted in the diffusion of light, and much good may be expected from the developments made by the investigation undertaken in behalf of popular prejudices.

      This venerable brother states to me, in a letter of the 27th. June, that if I thought him wrong in any expression or thought, not to spare showing it to him, for, says he,--"Truth appears to me so unspeakably precious, that it seems to me I would not take a step to save my life at the expense of it. To its mandate I mean to bow with all submission. I feel myself firm as a rock against all the arguments drawn from pride and popularity, which have been urged to prevent my searching for truth; and against those drawn from the indignation, calumny, and reproach of professing christians. I would not boast, but be humbly thankful to the Father of Mercies that he has so wedded my heart to the truth, that I can esteem reproach for it, greater riches than my reputation, or any earthly treasure."

      The following sketch of his experience is worthy of comparison with the best narratives given in many churches. Reader, see what fruits grow on this Egyptian vine, planted in the vineyard of Geneva, whether sprinkled or baptized. [460]

      "I have, myself, (through what now appears to me wrong instruction) been groping in darkness for thirty-five years, since I professed religion. I stumbled at the very threshold. I supposed I must have something good in me, wrought by the Spirit, before I had any right to lay hold on the hope set before me in the gospel; and on the most careful examination, I found so much that was not good in my heart, that I could not, as an honest man before God, avoid calling in question the foundation of my hope--and often have I concluded I would rest on it no longer, but would come to God as one who never had any hope. But I understood not the gospel. My eyes were blinded to the plain instructions of the word. I knew no other way than to pray that the Holy Spirit would change my heart, and try to give myself away to him. But here I found my way hedged up. I knew that prayer, to be availing, must be offered in faith--and I did not suppose that I could exercise faith, until my heart was changed. I have often looked every way to find something on which I could take hold, but there was nothing. The system I had been taught, had been so framed as to make me as helpless, with respect to my spiritual concerns, as those who are literally dead, are to animal motion; and this was done; lest the creature should attribute his salvation, in some measure, to his own doings, and, consequently, lean upon his own works, so his salvation be not wholly of grace. Thus, I say, I looked, and looked; but looked in vain. If my heart had not been renewed, I could not see that I could make one motion towards it--but must be as entirely passive as the dead in their graves. In this distressing condition the groans which have burst from my bosom no mortal tongue can tell, no heart conceive, unless it have felt the same.

      "But thanks, eternal thanks, to that Almighty Being, whose truth has rent the vail, and enabled me to look at the plain, easy, and familiar instructions of his word. There I find that I am warranted, as a rational creature, yea, even as a sinner, to lay hold, by faith, on the hope set before me in the gospel, and to obey God--with the assurance that, through this faith, God will grant me that purity which I so much need. In short, that through it, in full and lively exercise, I shall have all I need for life and godliness here, and preparation for glory hereafter.

      "This view of the gospel, while it detaches nothing from its grace, opens a door of hope for the poor sinner, into which he may enter and lay hold on eternal life. All is consistent, harmonious, lovely, yea, beautiful and worthy of a God. No difficulties in reconciling the doctrines of divine sovereignty with free agency--no contradictions, "You can and you can't," &c.

      "It is, dear sir, this view of the gospel which has lifted my soul out of the mire, where I had been bowed down for nearly twice eighteen years. Yet I acknowledge my faith weak. O when shall it be like Abraham's! I am sure my zeal and diligence will be in proportion to its strength. May the Lord increase it abundantly in all his children."

      I would, were I not crowded with many similar narratives, gladly give the whole of his report, drawn out by himself. The contents must suffice at present.--

      1. A declaration of his belief in the existence and character of God; in the prophecies of the Old and New Testaments concerning the Messiah, his person, mission, and character; and in the erection of his kingdom by the Apostles.

      2. His convictions of the evils resulting from creeds of human arrangement as bonds of christian fellowship; and the sufficiency, fulness, and intelligibility of the holy scriptures.

      3. His faith in the competency of the Apostles to announce the gospel, both on, and after the day of Pentecost; and his assurance that Peter meant what his words fairly imported in his addresses to the Jews and Gentiles. [461]

      4. His objection to metaphysical and speculative divinity; and the danger and delusion of making fancy and experience tests of christian doctrine and christian character, rather than the written testimony of God.

      5. Specifications of the incongruities resulting from supposing that the leaders of the sects were led by the Spirit in forming rites, ceremonies, institutions, and modes of worship, palpably repugnant and contradictory to each other--or that the members of these human establishments can be led by the Spirit in adopting any of them.

      6. The metaphysical and philosophical difficulties obtruding upon his efforts to imagine, with many devout people, how moral diseases are to be remedied by physical means--or the removal of depravity from man, if he can neither believe the threatenings nor the promises of God, except as a machine operates by mechanical power, or as he is compelled to believe them by the infusion of faith.

      7. The incongruities of the notion of the Spirit working faith in the heart without the testimony of God--and of supposing that any man receives the Spirit before he believes in the Lord.

      8. His views of the import of christian immersion--of the congregations' duty in observing the first day of the week as did the ancient disciples of Christ--and the impropriety of assuming any other name of designation than the names by which the Lord's people were originally distinguished.

      9. His willingness still to bear with all ignorance, and weakness, and difference of opinion amongst all who hold the head, and submit to Jesus as Prophet, Priest, and King.

      10. His renunciation of the statement which he made as containing a system obligatory upon himself; or to be propounded to others as a term of fellowship.

      11. A request that, if the council should separate him, they would give him, in writing, a statement of his errors, with references to the scriptures which might convince him.

      This is the outline of a very lucid, argumentative, and scriptural expose of the great elements of christian knowledge, presented in the statement submitted to the council.

      The reader will be gratified to learn that this intelligent brother was, not long since, one of the proprietors, (I think) and one of the committee of superintendence of the Vermont Telegraph--in a word, that this is the production of Ebenezer Conant, of Vermont.

Christian Character.

      "MAKE the tree good," was a maxim of the great Teacher. The good conscience, the pure heart, the holy life, or the good character in order to eternal life. Christianity begins with the conscience, and ends in perfect purity and felicity. Guilt, pollution, and the dominion of sin destroyed, are preparatory to that peace and love and joy [462] on earth, the prelude of "the fulness of joy." and of the "pleasures forevermore" at the right hand of God. This arrangement explains why the remission of sins is the capital item in the gospel; why the Holy Spirit should be the inmate of the human heart.

      But how is the christian character to be formed? and what is it when formed? The mould in which it is cast is the doctrine of the Apostles. But what is the Apostle's doctrine? It is the doctrine of relations. Christian knowledge is the knowledge of these relations, and christian character is the filling up of these relations.

      Jesus Christ first opened up to human sight all the relations in which man stands to spirit and sense, to time and eternity, to God, to angels, and to men. To live in accordance with these relations is the perfection of man, and consequently of human character.--This is the great lesson which christianity teaches.

      Human religion divorces man from a rational regard to some one or more of these relations. The Anchorite deserts the race to which he belongs, and seeks for perfection in the neglect of all social duties. The model of perfection which he sets before himself, is the phantom of an unchastened imagination. There is no living to God in this world, but by living to men. The whole sisterhood of vestal nuns, and the whole brotherhood of cloistered monks, are a banditti leagued against nature, reason, and society; outlaws in God's government, rebels against social order, and contemners of their own race. The purest women that ever lived were wives and mothers; and the most holy and renowned men of every age were husbands and fathers.

      The soldier who deserts the army lest he should prove a coward, as well deserves the honors of a brave man, as he, the christian character, who shuns the natural relations, lest he should fail in the discharge of social duties. The same may be affirmed of all deserters from political and economical relations in society which in themselves are honorable, or in other words, serviceable to the general interests of mankind.

      But here is the peculiar excellence of the religion of Jesus Christ, that it makes the growth in divine favor, and the excellence of human character, to consist in filling up all relative duties. When the master fulfils the law of Christ to his servant, and the servant fulfils the law of Christ to his master, they are in the moral and religious world perfect equals--perfect characters, and equally fit for the honors and bliss of heaven. But as no man or woman stands only in one relation to mankind, it behooves them to have a proper regard to all relations, in order to perfection; and as some occupy many relations, excellency of character to them is of more difficult attainment, because it calls for the discharge of so many distinct classes of duties. Hence he that is only a master, and neither a husband nor a father, and he that is both a master and a husband, and not a father, may more easily fill up the outline of his relative duties than he who is both a master, a husband, and a father. In proportion as relative duties are multiplied, both in kind and in number, this [463] perfection of character is of more difficult attainment, and is more honorable when attained. As in the parable of the talents he who gained two, having received but two, was as fully approved as he who had gained five, with five; so he who faithfully fulfils the law of Christ in all the relations in which he stands, is as perfect a character as he who stands in many more relations, and yet fills up the measure of them all.

      Some in this lax and licentious age of reason, as well as of religion, imagine that a person may be a very eminent christian, because of some rare excellence, even though he very obviously fails in some very common matters, in discharging the more ordinary relative duties. Thus sister Lavinia was very much commended by brother David, because she appeared so heavenlyminded as to neglect her household affairs. She read and sung, and prayed, half the day, and often visited her christian friends the other half; and it was not until her eldest daughter, Susan, was broken down in constitution by over exertion in domestic toils, and little Jane died in consequence of an autumnal cold, occasioned by the want of stockings and apparel suited to the season, that David could be convinced that hers was not the most excellent character in the church. David, too, was regarded as a model by all the disciples in the tabernacle, because he, devoted so much time to instructing the youth of the neighborhood, and attending meetings far and near; and might have to this day been regarded as a perfect model of christian character, had not his sons grown up in comparative ignorance, and fell so much below the par of their neighborhood in both common and religious education.

      Mrs. Thrifty, of Barley plain, was eulogized all round the neighborhood for her alms deeds and christian charity, and even from the pulpit was commended for her labors, and those of her daughters, in making apparel for the destitute Indians in the Missionary establishment at Senecaville. Every thing, too, in her house, appeared in good style: all was clean and neat; rooms well carpeted, beds and tables well furnished., Parson Lovegood, after spending a few days at her hospitable mansion, was leaving it one cold morning in December so full of admiration of Mrs. Thrifty, that he was resolving to make her character the subject of a religious tract, for the benefit of his own parish; but on coming to the gate, he found some half-dozen very squalid and almost naked young negroes shivering about his horse, not one of whom could tell who Jesus Christ was, or what he had done for mankind. He went on his way, muttering to himself as he rode along, "Alas for the inconsistencies in christian character!"

      Edward Early was the most liberal contributer for all religious and benevolent purposes in the town of Cairo, and was most constant in attending church. His whole household was in the first order; his children well educated, his servants just as they ought to be: he was beloved by all the neighborhood for his punctuality, generosity, and good manners; but he was never known to pray in his family, nor to spend an hour in the week in his closet, either in private reading of the scriptures or in personal devotion. [464]

      But a thousand aberrations there are from the standard of christian perfection; in producing which the idea that christians may be accepted and approved for the possession of some special or rare qualities, or that a person may grow in the favor of God some other way than by filling and faithfully discharging all relative duties, is predominant. It is a fallacy.

      No married woman can fill up the christian character only in so far as she is a good or perfect wife, mother, mistress, &c. No married man can exhibit the christian character only as he is a perfect husband, father, master, servant, &c. No minor, male or female, son or daughter, can grow in the christian character only as he or she advances in all the perfections of a son or daughter, &c.

      Paul teaches servants and masters, husbands and wives, parents and children, how they may adorn the Christian doctrine. It is by filling up the full measure of all relative duties. Thus in handling the hoe, the mattock, and the spade; in driving the loom, the plough, or the harrow; in making a hat, a coat, or a shoe, as the Lord commanded these things to be done, a person adorns the doctrine of God our Saviour. What a benevolent institution! how wise and good! which puts it in the power of every man to serve and glorify the Lord, and to adorn his gospel by every act of his life! Reader attend. Be assured that there is more reformation needed here than in your creed.

Dear Brother Campbell,

      I LATELY read a book called "The importance of small things; or a plain course of self-examination: To which is added, signs of the times. By JOHN HERSEY." This John Hersey was, last year, a travelling preacher of the Methodist Episcopal church. I believe he has now no circuit, being engaged in the settlement of his temporal affairs. The singularity of his views and conduct has excited much curiosity and discussion in this part of the country. By some he is said to be an enthusiast, by others a fanatic or madman, and by others, a good man. Whatever he may be, he has said some things which show that he is fully half a century ahead of some who are considered prominent members of the different sects at the present day, as you will perceive from the following extracts taken from the above mentioned book, and which, if you think them worthy of insertion, I would be glad you would publish.
  In the fellowship of the Gospel,

      "Has the church of Christ kept herself from unhallowed and disgraceful connexions with the world? Alas for her; here we shall have to weep over some of her darkest stains. From the time the cross of Christ was identified with the Roman eagles under Constantine, the church began to wither; her white folds were soiled by the touch of earthly honor, and her beautiful aspect was darkened by the king's embrace. The kingdoms and thrones of this world became measurably amalgamated with the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ on earth, until the glory of the latter became partially buried under the rubbish of pompous titles--Pope, Prelate, Cardinal, &c. &c."

      After speaking of the commencement, and progress of the Reformation till the time of Wesley, he says: "During the last half century, an unusual and [465] unparalleled degree of light and prosperity, which is daily widening and increasing, has marked the progress of the church of Christ. Within that period, but particularly in the years only recently gone by, not only has a great revolution taken place in religion, but a great reformation also. Yet on examination we will find, even in this day of increased light and privilege, much dark mixture and many unholy and reprehensible connexions with our enemies. What is our real condition? We should be honest with ourselves. Witness the most prosperous and efficient arm of the church in this day; the different societies and associations for the promotion of the Redeemer's kingdom on earth; the Bible Societies; the Missionary, the Tract and Sunday School Societies, &c. Christians of all denominations both patronize and identify themselves with these societies. They consider it an honor and privilege of no ordinary magnitude to do so. And are not all classes of people, however haughty or wicked their character may be, admitted into those associations? and if they are wealthy and honorable in the estimation of the world they are eligible to the highest station of dignity and honor in the gift of the society. It is well known that these important associations have been stained and dishonored with the presence and feigned embrace of earthly kings, and lords, as well as with the friendship and union of the wicked from the lower circles in life. Thus the sanctuary of the Lord has been polluted by the introduction of sinners into that sacred place. Is this not a more unguarded connexion with the world and the sons of Belial, than the church was guilty of in darker days?" "It is said, however, that 'great good is effected by this liberal management--money is secured from the wicked, that would otherwise be wasted in dissipation and folly; it is much better that we should have it, and cast it into the treasury of the Lord.' The case of Saul and the Amalekites should not be forgotten. The king of Israel was so zealous for the honor of his Lord, that he disregarded his plain command, that he might have himself the honor of offering the Almighty a large and respectable sacrifice. It was the cause of his rejection and final destruction. God is not dependent on man, much less on the favors of his enemies, the wicked, to accomplish his purposes. The only question to be decided is, Is it honorable--does it comport with the dignity of the church, and the glory of God, and is it pleasing in his sight? If not, those who think they may do evil that good may come, at least hazard much. It is said those societies cannot be considered in the same light with the church, therefore the Lord's sanctuary is not defiled by the introduction of sinners into it. They must have some specific character--their complexion is either white or black; they are either on the Lord's side, or for the enemy. If they are identified with religion, we do wrong to connect sinners with them; if they are not decidedly for the Lord and his cause, then do we greatly err in identifying ourselves with them, and the children of this world, of whom they are in part composed. An honorable man will not be ashamed of his companions, wherever he may meet them. If I associate and mingle with a certain class of people in their own neighborhood, and at their own residence, but when I meet them at the king's palace, or the president's drawing room, I affect not to know them; they are coarse, unpolished, and uncouth in their manners, profane and vulgar in their language, and ignorant in their character--therefore I am ashamed of them, and pretend not to know who they are; I act a deceptious and dishonorable part. The honest man will recognize and acknowledge his companions, and associates, in any place, or before any company on earth. And if they are slighted, he is as much offended as if the insult had been offered to him in person. How shall we meet those individuals at the judgment bar, with whom we identified ourselves here, knowing their character, and then hear the Judge say, 'Depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels'? Will we not, as honorable people, step forth and say, 'Hold, these are our friends, and companions; they must be received into heaven with us, or we will go with them into the lake of unquenchable fire, to intrude on the devil and his angels'?" [466]

      "Nearly the whole process now in operation for the promotion of the Redeemer's kingdom on earth differs widely from the movements of our Divine Master, and his disciples; and in every way we can view the change, it is against us. The first Missionaries of Jesus Christ had no societies to provide silver and gold for them; they went forth into a wicked heathen world, and planted the gospel standard among their bitter enemies, who were fortified with prejudice and iniquity against the efforts and arguments of the poor despised followers of Jesus: yet under these gloomy and apparently desperate circumstances, they were successful; they conquered their enemies with the sword of the Spirit--with love. Those poor despised veterans of the cross who were naked, and buffeted, and had no certain dwelling place--but were exposed to hunger and thirst, and labor and toil; who were reviled, and persecuted, and defamed, and made as the filth and offscouring of all things, not only conquered the prejudice and enmity of the heathen, but took back to the poor saints at Jerusalem, pecuniary aid received from them. At this time the world is greatly enlightened and softened by the influence of christianity; and does it now require so much money to support the gospel, or send it to foreign lands, that the professed followers of Jesus Christ cannot supply it? Must we call upon the enemies of the cross to aid in pulling down the strong holds of their liege sovereign?"

      "The signs of the times are truly ominous, and should be alarming to the friends of Zion." "I am convinced that much more might be done within the pale of the church, than we are now doing. It is mortifying in the extreme to see the church become an object of commiseration to the wicked. We must act independently of the pecuniary aid of the unregenerate, or we must fall. The enemies of the cross may, and will smile in prosperity, but they may also, and will assuredly stab in adversity. Were we careful to bring into active operation the sinews of the church, and lop off all our excesses, the world would very soon fall before us, and speedily become the kingdoms of our God and of his Christ. A minister of the gospel, within the bounds of the Virginia Conference, in the past year, has travelled about three thousand miles on foot, and preached generally six times a week. His entire expenses (exclusive of postage) did not amount to ten dollars. Nor was it a desperate effort on his part; for the last four or five years, his movements have been nearly the same."

      I believe it will be generally agreed by those acquainted with Mr. Hersey, that the above statement is true. If the present systems were calculated to call forth such men as this, they would not be obliged to call upon the people for so much money.
T. W. T.      


Peter's Address to the Gentiles.

      "OF a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons: but in every nation, he that fears him, and works righteousness, is acceptable to him. This is that message which he sent to the children of Israel, proclaiming the glad tidings of peace by Jesus Christ, who is Lord of all. You know the report there was through all Judea, which began from Galilee, after the immersion which John preached concerning Jesus of Nazareth; how God anointed him with the Holy Spirit, and with power; who went about doing good, and healing all who were oppressed by the devil; for God was with him. And we are witnesses of all things which he did, both in the region of the Jews, and in Jerusalem: whom they slew, hanging him on a tree. This very person God raised up on the third day, and granted him to become manifest, not to all the people, but to witnesses before appointed by God, even to us, who have eaten and drunk with him after he rose from the dead. And he has given in charge [467] to us to proclaim to the people, and to testify that it is he who is appointed by God to be the judge of the living and the dead. To him bear all the prophets witness, that every one who believes on him shall receive the forgiveness of sins by his name."

Paul in Antioch in Pisidia.

      "Men of Israel, and you that fear God, hearken. The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers, and raised the people while sojourning in the land of Egypt, and led them out of it with an uplifted arm. And for the space of about forty years he endured their behavior in the wilderness. And having cast out seven nations in the land of Canaan, he distributed their country to them for an inheritance. And after these transactions, which lasted about four hundred and fifty years, he gave them judges, till Samuel the Prophet. And from that time they desired a king: and God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for the term of forty years. And having removed him, he raised up to them David for a king; whom also he extolled, and said, "I have found David, the son of Jesse, a man according to my own heart, who shall do all my will." Of this man's seed, according to the promise, God has raised up unto Israel Jesus the Saviour; John having, to introduce his appearance, before preached the immersion of reformation to all the people of Israel. And when John was fulfilling his course, he said, Whom do you imagine me to be? I am not He; but behold there comes one after me, the shoes of whose feet I am not worthy to unloose. Brethren, children of the family of Abraham, and those among you that fear God, to you is the word of this salvation sent; for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and their rulers, not knowing him, nor the sayings of the Prophets, which are read every Sabbath day, have fulfilled them in condemning him. And though they could find no cause of death in him, yet they requested Pilate that he might be executed. And when they had accomplished all things that were written concerning him, taking him down from the cross, they laid him in a tomb. But God raised him up from the dead: and he appeared for several days to those that came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. And we bring you good tidings, that the very promise, which was made to the fathers, God has accomplished to us their children, in raising up Jesus; as it is also written in the second Psalm, "You are my Son, this day have I begotten you." And because he has raised him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, he has said thus, "I will give you the sure mercies of David." Wherefore also in another place he says, "You will not permit your Holy One to see corruption." Now David having served his own generation according to the will of God, fell asleep, and was gathered to his fathers, and saw corruption. But he whom God raised up did not see corruption, Be it known therefore to you, brethren, that by Him the remission of sins is proclaimed to you: and by him every one that believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. See to it therefore, that what is spoken in the Prophets may not come upon you; "Behold, you despisers, and wonder, and disappear; for I perform a work in your days, a work which you shall not believe, if any one tell it you."

Paul in Athens.

      "Athenians, I perceive you are exceedingly addicted to the worship of demons. For as I passed along, and beheld the objects of your worship, I found an altar on which there was this inscription, 'To the Unknown God:' him therefore, whom you worship without knowing him, do I announce to you. The God who made the world, and all things that are therein, being the Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with bands: neither is be served by human hands, as if he stood in need of any thing; he himself giving to all life, and breath, and all things. And he has made of one blood the whole nation of men to inhabit all the face of the earth, having marked out the times [468] previously arranged in order, and the boundaries of their habitations: that they might seek after the Lord, if possibly they might feel after him, and find him; though he be not far from every one of us: for in him we live, and are moved, and do exist; as some of your own poets have said,--'For we his offspring are.' We therefore being the offspring of God, ought not to imagine the Deity to be like gold, or silver, or stone, wrought by the art and contrivance of man. For though God overlooked the times of ignorance, he now makes proclamation to all men every where to reform, because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world righteously by that Man whom he has ordained; of which he has given assurance to all men by raising him from the dead."

      The remarks made on the models before submitted, are applicable to these. The same cardinal topics are kept continually in view, and the attention of the hearers, whether Jew or Gentile, is directed to the fact of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ as the earthly consummation of the whole economy of salvation. But for the application of these models to our times, we must take into view all our peculiarities, and all the principles embraced in the directions given under the first commission, as well as the conduct of the Apostles to their hearers. As we have never seen an Evangelist of the primitive character, nor a christian preacher who filled up the whole outlines of this calling as we have learned it from the Book, we shall in the next essay narrate the whole proceedings of Evangelicus, which we proposed as a model to ourselves about ten years ago; but, never having been employed in the work of an Evangelist, we have never practised upon it. Yet, after ten years' reflection, as often as the subject has been called up to our thoughts, we feel the more convinced that such is the most rational and scriptural model which a christian preacher could now adopt. It will only require a reasonable degree of christian fortitude to commence, and to persevere in a course, which indeed would be almost as novel as it is rational and scriptural.

Christian Preacher.---No. VII.

      EVANGELICUS always took the most popular method to apprize the citizens of every town and village of his object in visiting them. On his arrival he assured them that he wished to know every person in the village who loved Jesus Christ, and that he thought no disciple of the Saviour would decline an interview with him on the affairs of the kingdom of which they were citizens. After ascertaining all of this class, he requested their presence and their prayers while he would attempt the conversion of the citizens to Jesus Christ; alleging that he would propose nothing to their acceptance that was not written in the Book: for that he labored to bring men into the fold of Christ, and not into the fold of a party.

      He announced the time and place of his commencement, accompanying his appointment with the intimation of his design not to leave that place until he knew all in it who would obey the Lord. His first discourses were the person, mission, offices, and work of Jesus Christ; "opening and alleging," from both Testaments, that Jesus of [469] Nazareth was the Messiah, the Son of God and the Saviour of the world"--announcing the kingdom of God and teaching, the things which relate to the Lord Jesus Christ."

      So soon as he had fairly exhibited the testimony, which was sometimes done in three discourses, sometimes in two, and sometimes in one, as the circumstances of the people indicated, and always either on one day or on two or three succeeding days, he requested all who believed the testimony adduced to take one side of the house, or to signify their faith by standing up.

      After they had separated themselves, he immediately addressed those who said by their conduct they did not believe, requesting them in turn to specify the reasons why they rejected the testimony, or the objections which lay in their way. This he carried so far, in all suavity and mildness of manner, as to induce them either to state their objections, or to evince a total indifference, or unwillingness to be persuaded to submit to Jesus as the Lord Messiah. So soon as he fully ascertained how many had believed and who rejected the testimony of God, he turned to the believers and asked them if they would now submit to the will of the Lord in every thing, and began by stating to them the immediate duty of all who repented of their sins, or received Jesus as the only Saviour of the world. If any of these exhibited a lack of knowledge of his will, or any unwillingness to be baptized forthwith, he continued his interrogations and addresses until he fully ascertained how many would, with their whole heart, turn to the Lord. The others he addressed with all feeling, in the language of the warnings and denunciations of the Saviour and his Apostles, and cautioned them, on the peril of their eternal exclusion from the presence of the Lord, not to reject the counsel of God against themselves.

      After the baptism of all the converts, he taught them the constitution, laws and ordinances of the christian kingdom, and gave them scriptural ideas of the new relation into which they were brought to God, angels, and men, and to one another; and of all the privileges, honors, and immunities of the kingdom of which they had become citizens.

      In the interim of his teaching the disciples, he visited from house to house, all who would bid him welcome; and from house to house, as well as publicly, he ceased not to preach and teach Jesus Christ. On entering a house, he was wont to say, Peace be to this family; and to explain himself by stating his errand to be a desire to converse with the family on the affairs of salvation. If he was invited to proceed, he did so with all conciliation of manner and heart-felt interest; but if he was not invited to proceed, or if he was insulted by any rudeness of repulse, he brooked the indignity for the Lord's sake, and walked away in silence.

      Thus he continued his labors publicly and privately, until he knew all in the place who had an ear for the authority of God. After setting the disciples in order, so far as to have them to meet every Lord's day to keep the ordinances, he went on his journey to another town, [470] and pursued the same course, until he had taken in as much ground as he could well cultivate, returning occasionally to visit the churches he had planted.

      He never conversed upon the affairs of this world, except what immediately pertained to the health and circumstances of his brethren: for he often observed that preachers, in entering into all the frivolous and political chit chat of the day, unpreached by the fireside all that they preached from the pulpit, or on the days of public assemblies. He was wholly devoted to the Lord's work, teaching and warning every man publicly and from house to house, that he might, if possible, present every man perfect in Christ Jesus.

      In one year he planted twelve churches, and was an example to the flock in word and behavior, loved by the disciples, and esteemed by all men. Even those who sometimes regarded him in the light of an enthusiast, were constrained to say that they could wish that all enthusiasts were as exemplary and as consistent with their pretensions as Evangelicus.

Progress of Reform.

      July 9th. Nicholasville, Ky.--"Brother Morton was with us at our last meeting: ten were immersed in the evening."

      July 5th Murfreesborough, Tenn.--"Opposition very strong: we have scarcely a meeting, however, without some additions. There are in this county five public proclaimers of the ancient gospel, men of talents and piety."--"The church of Rock Spring, by a vote of 97 to 3, have abandoned human creeds, and are going forward in Reform. Never did I see a better opportunity of doing good in this country: so much peace and harmony among the saints, so much wrath and confusion among the sects."
T. R.      

      July 13.--"The congregation in Bank street, Philadelphia, under the teaching of brother Ballantine, is increasing, and enjoying the favors of the Lord. Good feelings exist between the brethren and sisters in the Baptist congregations and the members of our infant church. I hope they may continue, and that we may exhibit to them the simplicity and beauty of gospel order. Number about 40."

      June 25.--Elder Timothy Brewster, Ellisburg, New York, says: "The time of my departure is at hand. I have set up a little wigwam which contains about a dozen disciples. We are not visited by any of the brethren who labor in the word; and we live so far off, that I fear after my demise the little wigwam may fall with its founder. We have seen much change in the mode of preaching, and the things preached, in these vicinities; but not much change in practice. It is probable this will be my last communication to you; and my farewell address to you is, My dear brother, live in agreement with, and correspondent to, your published profession. Farewell!" [471]

      Rock Creek, Bedford county, Tenn. July 3d.--"The Reformation is advancing here. Within a few weeks about thirty have obeyed the gospel in the bounds of the labors of brother J. K. Spear and myself. Eight or ten more are expected next Lord's day, in my neighborhood, and among that number two of my children. "Bless the Lord, O my soul, for his goodness to the sons of men!" Yesterday I immersed a Cumberland Presbyterian elder, of good standing in that sect; and next Lord's day I expect to immerse his father, a Presbyterian, who has lived my neighbor for 20 years. Many of the intelligent espouse the cause of Reform."
W. H.      

      [A letter dated the 13th July, informs us that this brother was not disappointed in the above expectations.]

      Williamson county, Tenn. July 31.--"The brethren who have commenced their march out of Babylon are making more accessions now than all the sects in this district. Several ministers of the Concord Association have come out in the cause of Reform. In a tour of fourteen days, in the present month, we immersed twenty-three into Christ Jesus the Lord. On last Lord's day, and Monday, I saw seven more buried with Christ in immersion. In due time we shall reap, if we faint not."
A. C.      

      Yazoo, Mississippi, June 6.--"At Liberty church, Grand Gulf, I was informed that five churches among the Baptists had declared in favor of Reformation."

      Columbia, Tenn. June 18.--"During the meeting of the disciples of Christ of the Liberty Union, in May last, in Giles county, which continued four days, the cause of Reform was very powerfully plead; and never did I see more love and harmony prevail at any meeting which I attended, than at that meeting. It exerted a good and happy influence all round the country. Amongst the pleaders of Reform I was surprized to see so many old men; for we expect to see the young more susceptible of change than the old: yet amongst the Reformers are not only the young, but many of the middle-aged and venerable fathers in the land. Ten were immersed during the meeting, and the disciples were much stirred up and strengthened."

      Little Rock, Arkansas Territory, August 30th, 1832.--"There were, I believe, twelve or fourteen Regular Baptists in this place. They had a meeting house; but for a year back had but little preaching, and what they had was of the old Fuller stamp. This, however, suited the little church. The members were all females but one or two, and they were not calculated even to pray in public. This summer a Doctor Hall, formerly from Kentucky--late from Florence, Alabama, came to this place, practising dental surgery. He is a teacher of the ancient gospel. There being several gentlemen here who had known him, one for seven years, he was requested to preach. He did so. The curiosity of the people was excited--their attention next. In a word, he has succeeded in burying the Philadelphia Confession of Faith. It was renounced by the church unanimously, the fourth day of this month. Since then Doctor Hall has immersed twenty-two persons for the remission of their sins. One of the most prominent members of the Presbyterian church, a merchant of this place. Col. Caldwell, speaker of the last Legislative Counsel, &c. &c. Also a Cumberland Presbyterian preacher, the most popular preacher in the Territory, and universally admired for his talents and beloved for his piety. He has been a preacher eight or ten years."
P. C. [472]      

      Wilmington, Clinton county, Ohio, August 6th. Brother Rains, amongst other good news, says:--"On last Friday week I arrived at Wilmington; since which fifteen persons have, within the bounds of my labors, been immersed into the name of the Lord Jesus. The disciples are, throughout all the congregations more healthy in the faith than I expected to find them. The gospel is evidently gaining additional influence in these regions; and, notwithstanding the bitter opposition which it meets from the bigoted and prejudiced, must continue to increase. If an efficient evangelist could labor constantly in this field, I do believe that men and women would almost daily be added to the Lord; and that the labors of such a person would impart even to the disciples, much energy which they do not now possess."
A. R.      

      Minerva, Stark county, Ohio, July 6th.--"There are about two hundred disciples in this place, who, I think, are endeavoring to follow the primitive example of the old Apostles. Our meetings are well attended, and the reformation progresses with much zeal, and that, I think, according to knowledge.

      "We had a three-day meeting about the middle of June, during which twelve were immersed. They appeared to be begotten by the Spirit, and I am sure they were lawfully born into the kingdom. The prospect of the work progressing is very good. We have but few meetings at which more or less do not obey the gospel. I attended a two-day meeting a few days since, in a neighborhood where there had been no preaching except by sectarians. The excitement was great, and at the close of the meeting, I immersed five persons. I shall attend with them on to-morrow again."
J. W.      

      Maysville, Kentucky, July 20th.--"Since I wrote you I have been constantly in the field, and am happy to report considerable success. During two weeks I, and others with me, have baptized about thirty persons, making, since I came to the state, two months since, more than one hundred and twenty within the sphere of my labors. In this work I have associated considerably with brethren J. Smith and A. Rains, especially the latter."
D. S. B.      

      Jamestown, Ohio, August 6th.--"We have just concluded a two-day meeting at our village, during which ten confessed the Lord, and were immersed for remission of sins. Brother Rains was with us, and some of the brethren from Wilmington. We give thanks to God that the gospel, as preached by our Lord and his Apostles, is the power of God for salvation to all who believe it, at this day, as well as in the days of the Apostles. Our congregation has grown to ninety-four in less than two years, and additions are expected, not daily, but weekly."
M. W.      

      From many correspondents we are informed, in general terms, the Reformation is progressing; but the details are not given. The preceding have all been received since our last number was written. May the word of the Lord still run and be glorified; and blessed to his name that it is still spoken with effect!

For the Millennial Harbinger.      

Dear Brother Campbell,

      YOU say, (Millennial Harbinger, No. 5. vol. 3. p. 236.) "There is no law in the christian scriptures authorizing any one class of citizens in the christian kingdom to immerse to the exclusion of any other class of citizens." Now of this I have my doubts, and the reasons I will give you. Taking, your own method of reasoning, as found in the Christian Baptist, vol. 2. p. 277, 278, "Either there is a divinely authorized method of christian worship in christian assemblies, or there is not."--So, likewise,there is a divinely authorized class of administrators of immersion, or there is not.Now, if I [473] understand you, you say, There is no law making it the duty of one to immerse, to the exclusion of others; therefore, no disorder for any one in the kingdom to immerse--and it is also to be understood, that every immersed person is in the kingdom. Let us now see the dilemma to which this would lead; and first, let it be noted that men, women, children, and servants are understood to be in the kingdom. Men, women, children, and servants are all, then, authorized to immerse--yea, they are commanded to baptize, one as much as another--and this command is directly from the King himself. No disorder, then, for Jane, twelve years old, who was baptized yesterday, to baptize her schoolmate Mary, eleven years old, to day--and Mary, to-morrow, may, without disorder, baptize her little sister Judy, nine years old; and the day following, Judy baptizes Harriet, six years old; and Harriet baptizes all the little girls in the neighborhood, that she is able to manage, and that will say they believe in their heart, &c. All this is perfect order in the kingdom, if there is no law authorizing one class, to the exclusion of another, to immerse. I think it unnecessary to carry this matter further. We might adduce many more cases into which such an order, or rather disorder, would run. We will admit, that if every person, so soon as baptized, were filled with the spirit of wisdom and prudence, and the understanding of men, then there would be no such danger. But this is not the case; nor is it likely ever to be so. As long as baptism is to be administered, as long as there are sinners to be converted and baptized, there will be found babes, young men, and old men, in experience, prudence and knowledge.

      But if there is a law authorizing one class of citizens to immerse, to the exclusion of another, where is it? In answer to this we shall offer the following considerations--First, All the authority found in the New Testament to baptize, is contained in the words of the Saviour to the eleven Apostles, "Go ye, therefore, teach (or convert) all nations, baptizing them," &c. In this commission he has connected teaching, or preaching, and baptizing--and there is no instance recorded of any one baptizing, who did not teach or preach the gospel. John, the harbinger of the Lord, taught, as well as baptized. The disciples of Jesus baptized, by his immediate authority, those whom he had taught. Philip baptized the Samaritans and the Ethiopian eunuch, but he also preached Christ to them. Paul baptized Crispus, and Gaius, and the household of Stephanus; but he, also, was a teacher. Who baptized those on the day of Pentecost, or who baptized those at the house of Cornelius, is not told. And if Ananias did baptize Saul, he also taught him, and that too, under a special commission from the Lord. With regard to women baptizing, we have no command or example, except from the mother of harlots. It is not enough to say that it is not forbidden. Every thing that is not authorized by divine command or example, is, virtually and in fact, forbidden--Otherwise there is imperfection in the New Testament.

      There is, however, every reason, in the nature and fitness of things, that teaching and baptizing should go together, as connected in the commission to the Apostles. People must be taught to know the Lord Jesus, and how to obey him, before baptism. They should be taught the use, meaning, and design of baptism, in order to a proper reception of it. As teaching is, in the order of things, first, as well as first named in the commission, it was only necessary particularly to describe the persons that were fit to teach, or to do the work of an evangelist, and the other was as necessarily implied to be a part of their work, as teaching itself. Indeed, it is difficult for me to imagine how a person can be a competent teacher of the christian system, without baptizing--unless he assume the office of an Apostle, and have a John Mark, or a Silas, or a Timothy, to be his minister, and to baptize for him when commanded.

      The question turns, it seems to me, entirely on this point--Whom shall the church authorize to teach and preach? or shall she authorize any? If it be admitted that a congregation of disciples has a right to select, from its members, persons to preach and teach, and by sound doctrine, to exhort and [474] convince the gainsayers--then all such are authorized to baptize. Whenever a church says to one of her members, on the authority of the word of God, "Go teach and preach," she says, "Go baptize," or should say so. If it is said that baptism is no where named as being the work of the bishops, deacons, or evangelists of Paul's description--I answer, there was no need for it thus to be named, seeing they were to be qualified teachers.

      I am told, however, that Paul baptized, who was not sent to baptize. But Paul tells the reason why he was not sent to baptize. Being the Apostle to the Gentiles, they might have said he baptized in his own name, and therefore called themselves after his name, instead of the name of Christ. But Paul's saying he was not sent to baptize, certainly implies that some were sent to baptize. If all in the kingdom had been privileged to baptize, as common as to pray and praise, would he have used such language? How would it sound to hear the Apostle say, the Lord sent me not to pray and praise, but to preach the gospel? Would it not imply that some were sent to pray and praise, to the exclusion of others? Yours, in high esteem,


      TO this son of exhortation I would say--That it is possible, in the absence of piety, and prudence, and discretion, to turn any principle, even the grace of God itself, into licentiousness. In contending that there is no class of persons in the kingdom of Jesus who have an exclusive divine right to immerse, derived by any commission from heaven, it does not follow that the congregations are not to guard against all excesses and abuses. Every citizen in the state has the same natural rights, and according to the social compact, the same political rights. But in the organization of society it is necessary that certain functions, necessary to political health and prosperity, should, with the consent and concurrence of the whole, be performed by certain members of the political body. The divine right of kings and of priests to reign by the favor of God over us, is no longer plead by intelligent citizens.

      In the kingdom of Jesus all the citizens are kings and priests to God. Any subordination among such is purely economical. There is no divine virtue in one administrator more than another: but there may be more prudence, discernment, and intelligence in some citizens, than in others--and such may be preferred by the candidate, and the whole community, to perform any service which the law requires.

      It has been more convenient that they who preach should baptize: not because the institution is more virtuous, divine, or useful in their persons or hands than in the persons or hands of other citizens of the kingdom--and it was absolutely necessary that the first preachers should, themselves, baptize. Hence the twelve were commissioned to preach and immerse.

      We see how they understood their charge. They taught those whom they converted, with a due regard to all circumstances, to teach, preach, and immerse--without insinuating that such persons were their successors in office.

      No person can be sent specially to baptize without preaching, nor to preach without baptizing. But baptizing was the inferior of the two, and, therefore, Paul says, in the Hebrew idiom, he was sent to preach rather than baptize. This is precisely his meaning--nay, this is precisely what he says, when his Jewish idiom is understood. Bishop Pierce thus translates it--"For Christ sent me not so much to baptize as to preach." He supports his version thus--"The writers of the Old and New Testaments do, almost every where, (according to their Hebrew idiom) express a preference to one thing beyond another by an affirmation of that which is preferred, and a negation of that which is contrary to it: and so it must be understood here; for if Saint Paul was not sent at all to baptize, he baptized without a commission. But if he was sent not only to baptize, but to preach also, or to preach rather than baptize, he did, in fact, discharge his duty aright." Apostles had more important works than to [475] serve tables or baptize, though it was their duty to do both in the first place, and afterwards, in case of necessity, when others could not be found to attend to these subordinate matters.

      After all, the extreme case imagined by our excellent brother Barnabas, may never happen, and certainly it would be impossible to guard against similar or other excesses and abuses by any system--and would it be wiser to legislate with a reference to such mere conceivable cases, or to keep close to what is written?

Messrs. Carson and Ewing.

      A CORRESPONDENT in Rockville, Maryland, under date of August 2d, makes the following correction of my notice of the difference in the views and practices of Messrs. Carson, Ewing, and Wardlaw. I spoke of the whole system plead by these gentlemen, without reference to the minutia. They are all against human creeds, Independents, for weekly communion, and have the same leading views of the great scheme of redemption--differing only on the question of baptism. They were all once Presbyterians who stood very high in that denomination, and conscientiously separated themselves from it. But in the matters detailed, and in some others, there may be differences, which are excrescences upon the system.

      Mr. Ewing, with whom I had the pleasure of a very intimate acquaintance, was, in my esteem, as far from a worldly spirit as any preacher in Scotland. The collections made on the Lord's day, were for the poor. No one was asked to give, or questioned as to his views in throwing his penny or his sixpence into the treasury. I thought, however, it was too prominent, and might have been placed somewhere else than at the very entrance into the synagogue. Mr. Ewing was not the creature of a large salary. Liberal, hospitable, and rich in alms deeds, he was never, as far as I know, regarded as seeking his own interest as a minister. He forsook one of the best and most honorable births in Edinburgh the day he resigned the pastoral care of Lady Glenarchy's Chapel, rather than teach the confession of faith as the system of truth taught in the holy Scriptures.

      Mr. Carson has given the most unequivocal proofs of his devotion to truth. His treatise on immersion is now universally extolled among the American Baptists, as surpassing any treatise ever furnished by them on that subject. I wish them to know that they are indebted, for this, to an advocate of the ancient order of things.
Ed. M. H.      

      "IN the last number of the Harbinger, (July) I find noticed Mr. Carson's treatise on Baptism, and your 'remarks,' (page 322) in which you say Mr. Carson differs from Mr. Wardlaw and Mr. Ewing 'only on the question of infant baptism.' This assertion, I think, is too unqualified; he differs from both, or did differ lately, in the following particulars:--Messrs. Ewing and Wardlaw make learning essential to the ministry, (the bishop's office); Mr. Carson maintains that the scriptures make no such qualification necessary: the former disclaim a plurality of bishops in each church; the latter demonstrates the first churches to have possessed a plurality of overseers, and that concerning such as are not mentioned as having a plurality, the silence of scripture can never prove that they possessed only one. Mr. Carson presides over a congregation, all the gifts and talents of which are called into action, to be exercised in the presence of the bishops. Mr. Ewing hides the gift of the brethren from the world, confining the exercise of their talents to a fellowship meeting, (a [476] private meeting)--Mr. Carson labors in word and doctrine, devoting to the work all his time and talents, receives nothing from the world, and almost nothing from the church. Mr. Ewing does the same, and receives as his reward a large salary, in a splendid building. I was present when Mr. C. was offered the sum of £600 sterling per annum, if he would go and preach in London, in a house to be provided for him, on the plan of Messrs. Ewing and Wardlaw in Glasgow. This he unhesitatingly rejected, although he had a large family unprovided for, and was receiving little or nothing from the church. Only approach the two houses of worship, (I have been a member of both) and observe the difference between them. At the doors of Mr. Ewing's meeting house two sentinels are set, who collect money from saint and sinner. Is not such a church supported by the world? Mr. Carson makes the gospel 'without charge' to those that are without. He takes no promiscuous collections. He lives in voluntary poverty, because he considers it both unscriptural and unjust to collect money from those who have received no benefit from the preaching of the gospel."

Reformers of Popery.

      WICKLIFFE--deservedly called the "morning star" of the Protestant Reformation, was born in England, in the year of our Lord 1324, and died of the palsy, in Lutterworth, England, in the year 1382, aged 58 years. In 1428 his bones were disinterred and burned by order of the Pope. His works were spread throughout Christendom, and greatly prepared the way for Luther.

      JOHN HUSS--of Bohemia, was born, 1376, and burned on the 30th of May, 1416. Jerome of Prague was his cotemporary and companion in life and death.

      MARTIN LUTHER--was born in Saxony, 1483, and died in 1546, aged 63 years. Luther's contemporaries and fellow laborers were Carolostadius, Melancthon, Zuinglius, Bucer, &Oelig;colompadius, &c.

      JOHN CALVIN--was born at Nogen in Picardy, 1509, and died 1564, aged about 55.

      GEORGE FOX--was born 1624, and died 1691, aged 67. Barclay, Keith, and Fisher, were his coadjutors in forming a system of Quakerism.

      JOHN WESLEY--was born about 1709, and died 1791.

      GEORGE WHITEFIELD--was born 1717, and died 1770.

Origin of the now most popular Religious Sects.

      The LUTHERANS were called Protestants, because, in 1529, they protested against a decree of the Emperor Charles V. and the Diet of Speres, appealing to a general council. About this time king Henry VIII. declared himself in favor of the Protestants, and head of the church of England. The articles of the church of England, based upon a body of articles compiled in the reign of Edward VI. were passed in convocation, and confirmed by royal authority, in 1552--ratified again in 1571, and again by Charles I.

      The Liturgy was composed in 1547, and was frequently altered till the year 1661, since which time it has not been amended.

      The EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF ENGLAND, which has been the hierarchy for nearly three hundred years, is the first born of the Reformation amongst our [477] ancestors, the English people. By act of Parliament, in 1532, the king of England was declared head of the Church of England.

      The PRESBYTERIAN Church in England was set up on the 20th of November, 1572, near London, in a village named Wandsworth, on the banks of the Thames. Prior to this John Knox visited England, and was appointed an itenerant preacher for 1552. When Edward VI. died, he left the country. But in 1559 he visited Scotland, and became the chief agent of diffusing Calvinism and setting up Presbyterianism in Scotland. We may date the legal establishment of Presbyterianism in Scotland from the year 1692. The act of Parliament fully and finally confirmed it in 1594.

      CONGREGATIONALISTS--Ever after the establishment of Episcopacy under the supremacy of Henry VIII. there were some who would not conform. The Protestant part of these non-conformists were called Puritans. From among these arose both the Presbyterians and Independents.

      A Mr. Henry Jacob visited Leyden in 1604, and becoming acquainted with a Mr. Robinson of that place, imbibed his views of Independency, and returning to England, published them throughout that country, in the year 1616. This gentleman set up the first Independent or Congregational church in England, after the Holland style, in the year 1616, and died in Virginia, 1624. Jacob was the father of English Independents, and John Knox of Scotch Presbyterians.

      The CAMERONIANS, or COVENANTERS, the genuine Presbyterians of the time of Charles II. were distinguished from the first who wore the name; and may be regarded as a schism in that church. Cameron their chief, was killed in battle, in 1666, and his two brother preachers, Hackston and Cargel, rather than say, "God bless the king," died with invincible courage.

      SECEDERS--This branch of the Presbyterian church commenced in 1732. Ebenezer Erskine, that year moderator of the Synod of Perth, led the way. These divided into two parties, in the year 1747, touching the meaning of a certain oath, called the Burgess oath. These are named Burghers and Antiburghers.

      RELIEF PRESBYTERIANS--Another schism originated in the Presbyterian church, in 1752, occasioned by Mr. Thomas Gillispie being deposed for refusing to assist at the admission of a minister to a parish, because the parishioners were unwilling to receive him. They are against the patronage system, which still obtains among the Scotch Presbyterians.

      The CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIANS arose about the beginning of the present century. They are Methodists in doctrine, and Presbyterians in government and politics.

      METHODISTS arose in 1729, and are now distinguished in England by various names, as well as in the United States. There are several sects of Methodists.

      QUAKERS, first called Seekers, arose about the year 1650, and are also divided into a plurality of sects.

Ages of the Parent Sects of Protestants.

      Church of England, 300 years old. Presbyterian church, about 270. Congregationalists, 216. Quakers, 182. Methodists 103. The Baptists are hid, says Mosheim, in the remote depths of antiquity. Of the children of these sects it is too long to tell.

      FROM a file of London papers sent to this office, it appears that the church of England is in imminent danger of losing its tithes, and consequently its blessings, the bishops. As a specimen of the degeneracy of that church, and of the boldness of reform, we extract the following from a paper called "A Slap at the Church," London, March, 1832.
ED. [478]      


      In the Morning Chronicle of January 18th, 1814, is a letter written by a Mr. Wright, who had formerly been secretary to four right reverend bishops, in which he gives the following statement of ecclesiastical discipline in the small diocese of Ely, in 1813, compared with the year 1728:--

    In 1728.     In 1813.
    On 140 livings, 70 resident incumbents.     On the same 140 livings, 45 resident incumbents.
    Thirty-four who reside near, and perform duty.     Seventeen who reside near, and perform duty.
    Thirty-one curates, who reside in the parish, or near it.     Thirty-five curates, some of whom reside 8, 10, or 12 miles off.
    The population was 56,944 souls.     The population is 82,000 souls.
    The duty was performed 261 times every Sunday.     The duty is performed about 185 times every Sunday.
    And their income was £12,719 per annum.     And their income is now £61,474 per annum.

      Thus we find the duty to be neglected in proportion as it becomes more important and better paid for! The population increased one half, and the number of services diminished one third! The revenue increased almost five-fold, and the number of resident incumbents decreased one third ! Will such facts as these help the Bishop of London to account for the "awfully degenerate state of religion in England"?


      "Something decisive must speedily be done, or the Church of England, with all her blessings and advantages, will be reduced to one chaotic mass of undistinguishable ruin?"


      "To be sold by auction, with the prospect of immediate possession, the next presentation to a Rectory, in the county of Devon, the incumbent about 79. The living consists of a commodious and newly built parsonage house, an excellent glebe, consisting of 92 acres, and the tithes of the parish, which, with the glebe, may be fairly estimated at £300 a-year. The parsonage is situated upon the bank of a river, and is within five miles of a principal town."
Morning Herald.      

      "Advowson, and next presentation to a Rectory, in Norfolk. The Curacy, with a superior house and grounds, may be had, and a lease of the tithes; incumbent about 75. The tithes, and glebe-land, produce about £1,100 per annum. The situation is beautiful and healthy. To be sold, or exchanged for a living within sixty miles of London."

      We have been informed that the presentation to the Rectory in Devon has been sold for £1,250! and the Norfolk "concern" for £4,890. [479] Thus, a congregation of the Law-Established Church has been "knocked down to the highest bidder" for the sum of £1,250, and another "cure of souls" bartered away for about £5,000! A lot of human souls would puzzle an auctioneer accustomed to deal in bacon, cheese, and household furniture; and he might find himself somewhat embarrassed for language to tempt the Reverend and Pious Speculators to offer an adequate price for such a multifarious "lot of sundries." A simple, inexperienced bungler in the rostrum would address his company thus: "How much is offered, Reverend traders in souls, for this valuable parcel of church-going, tithe-paying parishioners?" "A thousand pounds." "A thousand pounds! What, no more than a thousand pounds for this profitable congregation?"--"Guineas," roars out a lump of clerical frailty.--"Why, Reverend gentlemen, this is not half its value. Remember the incumbent is 79, with one foot in the grave and the other ready to follow"--"Eleven hundred and fifty;" bid in four places. "Dog cheap still, my friends. Remember the 92 acres of Glebe, with £300 a-year, a capital House, and little to do."--"Another Hundred," squeaks out a youngster of three and twenty.--"Why, only twelve hundred and fifty pounds for the power to save or damn as many christians! A going at twelve hundred and fifty--the third and last time at twelve hundred and fifty pounds--Remember the age of the Incumbent, the Parsonage House, the Glebe, the Tithes, and the £300 a-year! All silent, gentlemen? Going, going for the last time, going--gone!"

      In Scotland, we learn that presentations to livings in the Presbyterian church are actually sold under the patronage laws.

The Sentinel and Star of the West.

      AFTER a long time, after having "No. 3 of the Logic and Candor of Universalism Examined" in charge from the 25th day of May till July 28, (for the Editors acknowledge my having furnished them with No. 3 on that day) I say, after so long a time, in the Sentinel of the 28th July l am served with another dish of the very lowest scurrility, and informed that my No. 3 is the last piece with which Messrs. Editors shall defile their paper, "except it be necessary hereafter to give a sample of the filth of his (my) pen." So ends the boast of Messrs Kidwell and S. Tizzard!!!!

      If any gentleman thinks that he can sustain Universalism, we inform him our pages are open to him under equal and impartial laws.

      EPAPHRAS, No. 3, and some other articles forwarded, have been crowded out of this number. [480]


[The Millennial Harbinger, 3 (September, 1832): 433-480.]

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